Items filtered by date: January 2017
Tuesday, 24 January 2017 04:14

Communications and Networking

Communications and Networking

Introduction
In communication systems the communication channels play a crucial role in the transfer of data. The transmission media can either be wired or wireless. For the wired communication media there are twisted pair wires, untwisted pair wires, the coaxial cables, and the fiber optic cables. Each type of media comes in different modes and subtypes. In this paper, the cat6 UTP cable, the coaxial, and the single-mode media are comparable discussed. 
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables are used in many telephone systems and Ethernet networks. The CAT 6 cable is sold in units of one meter and it is designed for use in high-speed networks where it can support Gigabit networks.  The cost of the cat6 UTP cable per meter in Alibaba.com (2017) is $0.1-3.0.  The cost of installing cat6 UTP cable is $250 charged per one thousand feet.  When the cat6 cable is used for back-end networking, it can support Gigabit Ethernet needs. It supports the frequency of up to 250 MHz plus the 10BASE-T, 10GBASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T standards, and it can handle the throughput of up to 10 Gbps (Damico, 2011).  When this cable is used for the Gigabit Ethernet and below, it can run for a distance of 100 meters, and when it is used for the 10GBASE-T speeds it can run a maximum length of 55 meters. 
The cat6 cable is also used to connect various devices to switches, routers, cameras, network interface cards among other devices and media. This type of cable also uses horizontal cabling because it interconnects the devices and media across a building.  The RJ45 also terminates the cable. This type of cable has the advantage of speed and performance because it can handle up to a maximum speed performance of 250 MHz. the cable is also backward compatible with the cat5 and cat5e cables (Fs.com, 2013).  The cat6 cable is however expensive and if it does not show significant improvement in the network, it will be a waste of time. It also does not guarantee full speed if all the other components in the network do not work at full speed. 
Coaxial Cable
The coaxial cable has an inner conductor that is surrounded by an insulating layer that is in turn surrounded by a conducting shield (Fs.com, 2013). The cost per meter of the coaxial cable ranges between $0.05 and $0.25 depending on the type of cable.  The cost of installing a coaxial cable ranges between $50 and $300 and it depends on some factors including the total length of the cable, the access difficulties, which do the work, and the wages in your area among other factors. They are connected using the BNC connectors.  The broadband has a bandwidth that can go as high as 100Mbps. The upstream for the broadband internet is 5-65 MHz band with the downstream being 85-750 MHz. In Australia the coaxial cable has a radio frequency of 7 MHz (Bykov, 2002). 
The coaxial cable can run for longer distances as compared to the cat6 UTP cable. For instance Ethernet can run for about 100 meters using the twisted-pair cabling but using the coaxial cable that distance can be increased up to 500m (with the 10BASE5). The coaxial cable is used in feedlines to connect radio transmitters and receivers, digital television signals, and computer network connections (Bykov, 2002).  They are used as both horizontal and vertical connectors in buildings depending on the purpose for which they are being used. The coaxial cable interfaces include the BNC, Type-F, Type-F, SMA, MC-Card, SMB, TNC, and MCX. The coaxial cable has a sufficient range of frequency that can support multiple channels thereby allowing for much greater output. Its disadvantage is that it is more expensive to install than the cat6 UTP cables. 
Single-Mode Fiber Optic Cable
The fiber optic cable is gaining popularity nowadays especially in the areas of backbones, horizontal, as well as in desktop applications. It provides a greater bandwidth as compared to the other two types of cables discussed above. Its standardized bandwidth performance can go as higher as 10 Gbps. The fiber optic cable is not restricted to 100 meters distance of the cat6 UTP cable and it can run a distance of up to 40 kilometers depending on the wavelength, the network, and style of the cable (Cablinginstall.com, 2002).  The single-mode fiber optic cable is sold in bundles of 300 meters that cost in total $199.9 (Alibaba.com, 2017). The types of connectors for the fiber optic cable include the SC and ST connectors.  It can be used as a backbone cable and also to connect servers, televisions, and routers. 
The single-mode fiber optic cable has several advantages. For one, it offers greater distance as compared to the multi-mode cables and it can run for long distances without attenuation (Babani et al., 2014). It also provides maximum security because it does not radiate the data signals and it is difficult to tap into the data being transmitted. However, there are also some advantages for the single-mode and generally the fiber optic cable.  The transmitters for the fiber optic and the receivers are more expensive as compared to the electrical interfaces. Its lack of standardization in the industry has also restricted its acceptance. 
Conclusion
In conclusion, the transmission media are very crucial in the communication system because without them the data cannot be transmitted from point to another. Although the copper cables have been used for some time now, the fiber optic cables are attracting much attention due to the advantages of reliability, security, and speed. However, there is an appropriate area where each can be comfortably applied as discussed above. 
References
Alibaba.com (2017). Single-mode optic fiber. Retrieved from https://www.alibaba.com/showroom/single-mode-fiber-optic-cable.html
Babani, S., Bature, A. A., Faruk, M. I., & Dankadai, N. K. (2014). Comparative study between fiber optic and copper in communication link. vol, 2, 59-63.
Bykov, A. (2002). Coaxial cable. Retrieved from http://services.eng.uts.edu.au/~kumbes/ra/Medium/coaxial/Coaxwebsite.htm
Cablinginstall.com (2002). Horizontal cabling costs: fiber vs. copper calculations. Retrieved from http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-10/issue-5/contents/optical-fiber/horizontal-cabling-costs-fiber-vs-copper-calculations.html
Damico, M. (2011). 8 advantages to choosing fiber optic copper cable. Retrieved from https://bboxblog.wordpress.com/2011/12/08/8-advantages-to-choosing-fiber-over-copper-cable/
Fs.com (2013). The Difference between Fiber Optic Cable, Twisted Pair and coaxial Cable. Retrieved from http://www.fs.com/blog/the-difference-between-fiber-optic-cable-twisted-pair-and-cable.html
Published in Information Technology
Monday, 23 January 2017 18:13

Miscellaneous Errors

Grand Street Medical Associates
Student Name
Course Title
Instructor
Date Submitted
Miscellaneous Errors
    There was a time a large amount of patient’s protected health data and information was exposed through an unsecured FTP server. This was discovered by one Justin Shafer who proceeded to notify Grand Street Medical Associates (GSMA). GSMA went on to contact DataBreaches.net on March of the same year. It was estimated that more than 14,600 files were exposed which is more than 20GB of data. Each of the files skimmed by DataBreaches.net contained PHI on several patients. It appeared as the files comprised of an effort of scanning and digitizing patients’ paper records from December 2011. 
Figure 1: Some of the files exposed
    Most of the files exposed contained patients’ demographics. The files also contained PHI of unique patients. Additionally, for most of these patients whose files were exposed, there were questions whether they had recently visited the lab or had any bloodwork. The forms also required the patients to provide information such as name, marital status, and date of birth, age, gender, address, and occupation among other sensitive information. About half of 65 patients whose forms were exposed provided the requested information without thinking much into it. On the other hand, other patients provided insurance information according to the way they were requested. For most of the patients, there were also copies of the insurance cards as well as driver’s licenses. The matter became even worse because more than 14,000 files appeared on Google index while the other more than 6,300 files appeared on the Filemare index. Below is the Google index:
Figure 2: Google Index
References
http://siliconangle.com/blog/2016/03/22/medical-data-breach-exposes-patient-records/ 
http://www.databreaches.net/ny-treasure-trove-of-grand-street-medical-associates-patient-data-exposed-and-indexed/ 
Published in Computer Science
Friday, 20 January 2017 03:53

Annotated bibliography

Annotated bibliography



Research indicates that there is the positive link between the development of human capital and organizational performance. Human capital does make a significant impact on performance. Today, the most important human capital challenges involve engagement, retention, and providing strong benefits and compensation. In this annotated bibliography, it focuses on the research done on human capital and how to deal with the challenges.
Fitzenz, J & Bontis, N (2002). Intellectual capital ROI: causal map of human capital antecedents and consequents. Journal of intellectual capital, 3(3)
In this study, the researchers examined the antecedents and consequents of effective human capital management by integration of the qualitative and quantitative measures. In this study, the study used a sample of 76 senior executives from 25 companies in the financial industry. The researchers developed a holistic causal map on the ground of integrated constructs from fields of knowledge management, human resources, intellectual capital, accounting, information technology, and organizational behavior. The study was effective as it provides the driving factors which determine the effectiveness of the human capital capabilities.
Hooper, D & McCrindle, M (2006). Generation Y, attracting, engaging and leading the new generation at work. Drake International White Paper, 3(1)
The report is based on a survey conducted by Drake International of 3000 Australians, and it focuses on the group studies of Generation Ys to help the businesses in understanding how to approach generation diversity in the organization. The authors tend to outline the biggest shifts in the workforce that include transitioning generations and call for employers to meet the needs of the multi-generational workplace, aging population, redefined work life of a new multi-career generation, and increasing the employment options. The authors claim that so at to manage Generation Y, employers must advertise in the right places and use language that appeals to this generation. As a way of retaining these employees, businesses should continue providing continual training, flexible working conditions, promotion opportunities, and rewards and recognitions.
Ahmed, Z Roy, H & Huang, Z (2002). Benchmarking human capital strategies of MNCs in Singapore Benchmarking an International Journal 9(4)
The researchers aimed at exploring the role of human capital strategies in survival and growth of promising local enterprises and the existing multinational corporations in Singapore. In the study, the researchers aimed at benchmarking the human capital practices of the multinational corporations to the degree of if promising local enterprises are learning from human resource strategies of multinational corporations. The results of the study indicate that many promising local enterprises can learn from the human capital strategies of multinational corporations in certain areas. They include the broadening focus of training and selection methods to include teamwork, leadership, and critical thinking, developing different methods to enhance the value of human capital, align organization culture with new values of teamwork, leadership, and learning, and also expand the reward system apart from extrinsic incentives.
Fox A (2014). Keep your top talent, HR Magazine 59(4).
In the article, it looks at employee retention through focusing on high-level, top-performing employees. Based on the researchers, most employees usually report low levels of engagement with their employers, but the article provided recommendations for how the HR department can participate in making sure that key employees are retained. The article does suggest that training the managers to hold recruitment conversations with the valuable employees can encourage them to stay long in the company. According to the author, employee engagement is a crucial piece of the retention puzzle and employees tend to feel engaged when they do have a solid relationship with managers. In this study, it cites some examples from different companies that have used the strategy and have observed positive results. The author recommends that by using stay interviews and survey on employee engagement, it can provide the company with an idea of intended employee turnover.
Shuck, A Twyford, D & Reio, T (2014). Human resources development practices and employee engagement. Human resource development quarterly, 25(2)
While using the social exchange theory, the study aimed at understanding the possible linkage of the human resource department practices and employee engagement to the turnover intentions. The researchers used the Internet-based self-report survey as the primary tool of data collection. The results of the study suggested that the participating in the human resource development practices and the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral engagement negatively relate to the turnover intent. The study indicated that engagement partly mediated the relation between the turnover intent and the HRD practices. Based on the findings of this research, it supports the value of supporting employee participation in the HRD practices so as to improve the employee engagement and also reduce the turnover intent.
Adeosun, O Ogunyomi, O & Akindipe, O(2013). Effective reward system and worker’s productivity under dynamic socio-cultural and legal environment in selected Nigerian insurance industry. Alleviation, income redistribution & rural development in developing countries. 402-421
The authors tend to summarize the study on the effect of the reward system on the productivity of workers in certain insurance companies in Nigeria. From the study, the results show a positive form of relationship that does exist between an effective reward system and the productivity of the worker.
Deckop, R. & Cirka, C. (2000). The Risk and Reward of a Double-Edged Sword: Effects of a Merit Pay Program on Intrinsic Motivation. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(3)
Deckop and Cirka tend to examine the wide-spread merit pay programs that are usually used in non-profit organizations and then discuss the risks. According to the authors, one of the risks is the possible negative impact of the program on the personal motivation of employees. In the study, the researchers present a study on employee motivation in the non-profit organization before and after implementation of the merit pay system. Based on the results of a study, the merit pay program caused a decrease in employee’s personal motivation. Factors that relate to justice also have an influence on employees who initially supported the merit pay plan after the implementation believed of being assessed unfairly and showed a significant fall in the intrinsic motivation. The study concluded that the merit pays produced decrease in intrinsic motivation for employees.
Mathauer, I. & Imhoff, I. (2006). Health worker motivation in Africa. Human Resource for Health. 4(24)
The study tends to assess the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in cases in Benin and Kenya. The study uses semi-structured qualitative interviews with nurses and doctors from NGO, public, and private facilities. From the study results, health workers are strongly guided by the professional conscience and aspects related to professional ethos. The authors found that many health workers are frustrated and demotivated because they are not able to satisfy their professional conscience and hindered from pursuing their vocation because of lack of supplies and means and also due to inappropriately applied HRM tools.

 

Published in Business Studies
Friday, 20 January 2017 03:45

Emergency Management in Healthcare Issues

Emergency Management in Healthcare Issues



Abstract
The fundamental objective of emergency management is to safeguard life as well as prevent injury during dynamic situations. Various stages of emergency management are critical for government agencies, business, and private organizations as well as nonprofit groups. Emergency management processes, policies, and documents in healthcare organizations must ensure that each particular facility can respond adequately to incidents that could potentially create mass casualties. The significance of ensuring competent emergency management in a healthcare organization is to protect as well as be able to save the lives of patients, employees, and communities that a healthcare organization’ serves. Emergency management is however faced with various crucial healthcare concerns that adversely affect the processes and lead to adverse consequences. The paper explores four critical healthcare issues in emergency management namely mechanism of injury (MOI), communication and media relations, triage challenges and logistical issues. The paper also describes various improvements, measures, and strategies employed so as to minimize the adverse outcomes of the various healthcare concerns discussed in the paper.


 


Introduction
Emergency management processes, policies, and documents in healthcare organizations must ensure that each specific facility can respond adequately to incidents that could potentially create mass casualties. These events that could cause emergencies include natural catastrophes (earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, floods or blizzards), unintentional events (plane or train accidents, power failures or any accidents involving biological, nuclear or chemical contamination), or intentional incidents (terrorist attacks or domestic disturbances). It is critical that all the healthcare professionals in a healthcare facility get involved in creating emergency management processes, policies, and documents that are best suited to the facility’s specific needs based on its hazard vulnerability analysis. The significance of ensuring competent emergency management in a healthcare organization is to protect as well as be able to save the lives of patients, employees, and communities that a healthcare organization’ serves. In the event of a disaster, communities expect that healthcare facilities provide medical care to the injured. However, in some occurrences, the medical organizations and their employees fall victim of the events; therefore, should adequately prepare to cater for the community needs in these events as well as safeguard its staff and facilities. The emergency management standards needed healthcare organizations should take a holistic approach so as to manage an emergency that entails preparing a coordinated response and also anticipating challenges and ensuring self-sufficiency. The best practices of emergency management in care facilities require planning and preparation efforts as well as complete and total support from all the staff in the organization from the facility administration to frontline staff. Healthcare organization emergency management activities vary and can be grouped in various ways that include surge capacity, communication, volunteer management, security concerns, hazmat/CBRNE preparedness, volunteer management, collaboration and integration with public health, education and training, drills and exercises, trauma centers, emergency department disaster operations and drills and exercises. Emergency management is however faced with various crucial healthcare concerns that adversely affect the processes and lead to adverse consequences. The paper explores four critical healthcare issues in emergency management namely mechanism of injury (MOI), communication and media relations, triage challenges and logistical issues.



Mechanism of Injury (MOI)
MOI describes the manner in which a patient traumatic event took place that is the forces that act on the body to cause damage. It may include a high-speed motor vehicle crash, a gunshot wound to the torso, or a fall from a standing height. Assessing as well as evaluating MOI can assist in predicting the likelihood of various injuries having occurred and estimate its severity. Knowing the specific details about MOI of a patient can give insight into the energy forces involved and may assist trauma care providers to predict the injury types and in some instances, patient outcomes (Brown, et. al. 2011). Prehospital caregivers report MOI as a communication standard when handing off care to the emergency department and trauma personnel. Similarly, patients who present to the emergency department for emergency health treatment will often relate the MOI by describing the particular chain of the incidents that led to their injuries.



The most common injury producing mechanisms for patients are blunt trauma and penetrating trauma. Blunt trauma is caused by impact forces such as those sustained in a motor vehicle crash, a fall, a blast effect from an exploding bomb, and also an assault with kicks, fists or a baseball bat. The energy that gets transmitted from a blunt trauma mechanism, especially the rapid acceleration-deceleration forces entailed in high-speed crashes or fall from a great height, produces injury by tearing, shearing and also compressing anatomic structures. Trauma to blood vessels and soft tissues takes place. Penetrating trauma is as a result of injuries caused by sharp objects and projectiles. These kinds of injuries include wounds from ice picks, knives and other comparable implements and also bullets (gunshot wounds {GSWs} or pellets. The injuries can also be caused by fragments of metal, glass or other materials that become airborne on the event of an explosion (shrapnel). All the mechanisms have the risk for particular injury patterns and severity that the trauma providers take into consideration when planning diagnostic evaluation and management strategies. Specific injury mechanisms that include gunshot wound to the chest or abdomen or also a stab wound to the neck get highly linked to life-threatening outcomes that they automatically require the immediate intervention by a trauma team for a rapid and coordinated resuscitation response.



One of the most common practices for victims of blunt or penetrating trauma who have experienced MOI forceful enough to damage the spinal column possibly is the prehospital spinal immobilization (Morrissey, 2013). All significant MOIs regardless of signs and symptoms of spine injury requires full-body immobilization that is typically defined as a cervical collar getting applied and the patient being secured to a backboard with head stabilizers in place. It’s however, problematic to use MOI alone as the key indicator for prehospital spinal immobilization. Besides, the harmful sequelae and potential harm of the spine immobilization require consideration in all field protocols. The spine injury assessment guidelines and algorithms that allow for the selective immobilization of injured patients need to be examined appropriately. In the event of a catastrophe, it is not only the community that gets affected but also communication infrastructure get damaged, and the healthcare organization’s power or facilities get destroyed leading to communication failure. It is, therefore, essential that healthcare facilities develop a plan to maintain communication pathways both within the care organization as well as with critical community resources.



Communication and Media Relations
Effective communication is fundamental t successful daily operations of medical facilities and becomes even more critical during crisis events. Excellent communication inside and outside of a healthcare facility during an emergency assists in ensuring the smooth implementation of Emergency Operations Plans. The success or failure of Emergency Operations Plans gets determined by the timely access to communication that allows for an efficient flow of critical information. Communication requires both the use of proper equipment in the event of a crisis as well as the verbal and written interaction with employees and the community. Public health officials, as well as journalists, play a significant role in disseminating information concerning the occurrence of events necessitating for emergency services. The media has been very informative about crisis situations that occur in different parts of the globe. For example, the media was the primary source of information about persons trapped after hurricanes Katrina and Rita slammed into the Gulf Coast of the US (Lowrey, et. al. 2007). Issues in healthcare relating to communication in disaster preparedness and response are associated with frustration and inadequacy to coordinate and execute disaster operation plans. Communication with the general public concerning emergencies should be in conjunction with the public relations department (Kapucu, Arslan & Demiroz, 2010).



Healthcare organizations get required to develop emergency communication strategies as part of the organization’s emergency operations plan and should include in the plan the manner in which it will sustain ongoing communication with employees, the public and the community throughout a crisis. Healthcare facilities should also strive to standardize its communication both internally as well as externally. In the facility, internal communication patterns develop and also change so as to fit the day-to-day needs of administration, management, and care. External communication in a healthcare organization entails the communication between the facility and external staff and private physicians, other healthcare organizations, public safety services (such as emergency medical services), medical testing laboratories, medical examiners and the general public seeking medical treatment or information.



Various problems associated with communication lead to shortfalls during disaster events. The failures are as a result of unpredictable nature of wire-based and cellular telephones and the incompatible radio frequencies when employing hand-held radios. Human errors can also lead to communication problems in health care organizations. Journalists and news organizations also contribute to the communication problem by disseminating inaccurate, incomplete and sensational coverage that may result in public misunderstanding the threats. Studies have determined that journalists covering crisis events lack sufficient expertise in science and medicine, therefore, are unprepared (Lowrey, et. al. 2007). Journalists focus on providing information to the public about health risks although they feel obligated to go beyond passive dissemination of the information. They, therefore, may adopt a wary and even skeptical stance about the government agencies and spokespeople. Public information officers in healthcare have also been faulted by journalism advisors to have contributed to the communication problem since they lack the authority to provide access to information and experts. The public information officers are not allowed by their seniors to give the journalists the information and experts they seek and also may not have adequate information about what information and experts are available or helpful.



Various measures can be undertaken to enhance effective communication during emergencies. By identifying the vulnerabilities in the current healthcare communication systems, steps can be implemented to address the challenges and enhance the health system preparedness. Infrastructure support is also an essential consideration when examining whether adequate safeguards have been implemented to support the supports we will use during crisis occurrences. It is also important to reduce turnover in the media and news organizations as the seasoned journalists able to effectively communicate healthcare issues during emergencies leave to join other fields. Different communications modes that include paging, radio, television, email and mobile phones can be employed to provide information during disasters. The integration of social media and networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook in communication during emergencies can assist the emergency management community that includes the medical and public health professionals in responding adequately to catastrophes and other occurrences (Merchant, Elmer & Lurie, 2011). Networking sites get used by an extended part of the society hence can effectively help individuals, communities, and healthcare agencies to share emergency plans and develop emergency networks. Location-based service applications that include Foursquare and Loopt provide an opportunity to enhance preparedness by improving the public awareness of crisis situations in their geographic area. Social media has also become a critical component in recovery efforts after the occurrence of crisis events. An example of the effective use of social media in crisis situations is the 2010 Haiti’s earthquake in which Ushahidi an open source web platform that uses crowdsourced information to support emergency management linked medical providers requiring supplies to those who had them (Merchant, Elmer & Lurie, 2011). Also, victims of the earthquake used Facebook to reach out for help after the disaster had occurred.



Triage Challenges
Triage describes the process that places the right patient in the right place at the right time to receive the right level of care. The process of triage prioritizes the patients to receive care first and is regarded as the cornerstone of good disaster management. Accurate triage enables disaster nurses to do the greatest good for the greatest number of casualties (Aacharya, Gastmans & Denier, 2011). Triage is necessary for managing causalities both in peace and wartime. Appropriate triage decision assists in saving the lives as well as the limbs of a vast number of patients. Although the fundamentals of triage remain consistent wherever it is carried out, undertaking triage in a disaster situation presents unique challenges, and the success of the process may be highly dependent on the competence and experience of the nurse and the other healthcare professionals. The critical point of triage is that not every patient who requires a particular form of medical care that includes medicine, therapy, surgery, intensive care bed, transplantation can gain immediate access to it. The triage nurse must accurately make a decision which patients require care, in what order should they be treated, and in situations of severely constrained resources, the patients who should not receive care at all. Some of the competencies and personality traits of a good triage provider are clinically experienced, calm and cool under stress, sense of humor, good judgment, and leadership, decisive, creative problem-solver, knowledgeable of available resources and experienced and knowledgeable concerning anticipated casualties.



Various challenges take place if patients are rapidly discharged from triage. One, the patients may fail to complete the registration process. Two, the lack of education delivered to the patient concerning the diagnosis. Three, the perception on the part of the patient that not being examined in a medical room with a gurney implies they are being kicked to the curb without adequate treatment.



Logistical issues
Emergency logistics management has emerged as a prominent global theme as catastrophes, either artificial or natural may take place anytime around the globe with enormous impacts. Unlike business logistics, the definition of emergency logistics remains ambiguous. Logistics in business is described as the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the aim of conforming to consumers’ requirements at the lowest total cost. Logistics in emergency management hence can be adapted from the above definition. It gets described as the process of planning, managing as well as controlling the efficient flows of relief, information and services from the points of origin to the points of destination to meet the urgent needs of the affected individuals under crisis circumstances (Sheu, 2007).



Extreme calamity incidents pose severe logistical challenges to emergency as well as aid organizations active in planning, preparation, response and recovery operations since the disturbances they cause have the potential to turn normal conditions suddenly into chaos. Under the circumstances, the delivery of the critical supplies that include food, water, and medical supplies becomes a tough task. It is as a result of the severe damage to the physical and virtual infrastructure as well as the limited or nonexistent transportation capacity. The recovery process is made quite challenging by the prevailing lack of knowledge concerning the nature and problems of emergency supply chains. Hence causing the design of reliable emergency logistics systems to be hampered by insufficient knowledge concerning formal and informal supply chains operate and interact, techniques to analyze and coordinate the flows of priority and nonpriority goods, as well as scientific methods to analyze logistic systems under extreme conditions.



Various studies have been undertaken with the aim of determining the different critical logistical issues that have plagued the response to certain disasters. The research on the response of Hurricane Katrina determined various logistical issues. They include collapse of the communication infrastructure, magnitude of the requirements, lack of integration between federal as well as state logistics systems, understaffing and lack of adequate training, inefficiencies in prepositioning resources, lack of planning for the handling and distribution of donations, limited asset visibility as well as procurement (Holguín-Veras, et. al. 2007). The logistical issues following Hurricane Katrina that in August 2005 devastated the US Gulf Coast give a perfect example of the importance of enhancing the efficiency of supply chains to the site of a hazard. These logistic issues led to the formulation of certain improvements so as to better respond to future risks. The improvements include executing measures to enhance asset visibility, developing a comprehensive emergency logistics training program, developing regional blanket purchasing agreements, executing proactive donation coordination plans, and developing regional compacts for prepositioning of critical supplies.



Conclusion
In emergency management, it is essential to evaluate the MOI of a patient as it assists in predicting the likelihood of various injuries having occurred and estimate its severity. Communication in emergency management is critical as it plays various roles that range from developing a competent media relations during contingencies to controlling rumors to balancing the public’s right to information with the organization’s need to safeguard its interests. Also, importantly, communication and public relations maintain, monitor as well as prioritize relations with the various organization stakeholders. Triage is a very challenging health issue associated with managing clinical and support activities. It is, however, important as a management tool and also in enhancing reliability and consistency in emergency management during a crisis. A comprehensive emergency management plan must address the aspect of logistical responsiveness across all the four phases of emergency management namely planning, preparedness, response, and recovery. All the stages of emergency management entail of an element of logistical readiness and intervening measures that can be carried out to stave off some of the effects of a disaster. The logistics staff must acknowledge the complexity of crisis response and need to appreciate interdisciplinary solutions based on lateral thinking as well as concerted strategies.




References
Aacharya, R. P., Gastmans, C., & Denier, Y. (2011). Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis. BMC emergency medicine, 11(1), 1: DOI: 10.1186/1471-227X-11-16
Brown, J. B., Stassen, N. A., Bankey, P. E., Sangosanya, A. T., Cheng, J. D., & Gestring, M. L. (2011). Mechanism of injury and special consideration criteria still matter: an evaluation of the National Trauma Triage Protocol. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 70(1), 38-45: doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182077ea8
Holguín-Veras, J., Pérez, N., Ukkusuri, S., Wachtendorf, T., & Brown, B. (2007). Emergency logistics issues affecting the response to Katrina: a synthesis and preliminary suggestions for improvement. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2022), 76-82. DOI: 103141/2022-09
Kapucu, N., Arslan, T., & Demiroz, F. (2010). Collaborative emergency management and national emergency management network. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 19(4), 452-468: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09653561011070376
Lowrey, W., Evans, W., Gower, K. K., Robinson, J. A., Ginter, P. M., McCormick, L. C., & Abdolrasulnia, M. (2007). Effective media communication of disasters: pressing problems and recommendations. BMC Public Health, 7(1), 1: DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-97
Merchant, R. M., Elmer, S., & Lurie, N. (2011). Integrating social media into emergency-preparedness efforts. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(4), 289-291: DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1103591
Morrissey, J. (2013). Research Suggests Time for Change in Pre-hospital Spinal Immobilization. Journal of Emergency Medical Services.
Sheu, J. B. (2007). Challenges of emergency logistics management. Transportation research part E: logistics and transportation review, 43(6), 655-659.

 

Published in Nursing
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