Date of Submission
- Problem Statement
- Criminal Justice and Organizational Culture
- Behavioral Theory and Criminal Justice System Leadership
- Criminal Justice Leadership and Planning
- Criminal Justice leadership and Community Relations
Leadership remains as one of the success determining factors when in all organization. Particularly in state owned organizations, poor leadership do not only reduces public confidence but also reduces service delivery. Criminal justice system remains one of the institutions whose success gets influenced by leadership types. The presence of strategic leadership in the justice system enhances service delivery and at the same time reduces chances of justice miscarriage. Policy making and implementation are therefore obliged to work on robust leadership in the criminal justice system to promote efficiency.
Criticisms continue to be directed towards criminal Justice System continues to in society. The situation is mainly factored by the delay of justice dispensation, miscarriage of justice as well as poor resource management. This situation always raises a question among citizens as to who is responsible and what the leadership does to avoid the same trend. As a result, leadership in criminal justice system needs to develop appropriate and effective ways to help in improving their performance in policies and criminal justice administration. Leadership approach always determines the system culture which in the end exerts an effect on performance. Supportive leadership style remains to good effect on performance in much organization (Silvestri, 2006). Similarly, criminal justice system needs to impress this style of leadership to help administer justice inefficient way. Supportive, instrumental and collaborative leadership dimensions amount to effective leadership which does influence not only performance but also organizational culture. Justice administration demands effective leadership and therefore strong leadership enhances justice dispensation and limits delays and miscarriage.
Criminal Justice and Organizational Culture
The fact that the Criminal justice system is a public institution forces it to come up with ways that can attract trust from the public. Leadership has an obligation to develop a culture that is service-oriented weather in hardships or comfort. All people given the mandate to run the criminal justice system must always aim at meeting the needs of citizens and maintaining the good image of the institution (Jennings, Schreck, Sturtz, & Mahoney, 2008). Attaining this demands effective leadership which can bring on board all stakeholders that make up the system. All agents of criminal justice need to have a kind of leadership that promote collaboration and promotes efficiency particularly I addressing critical issues in the criminal justice system. The culture of criminal justice system needs to reflect supportive leadership, collaboration, teamwork, efficiency and focus.
Criminal justice administration requires leaders who can positively influence service delivery from inside. Supportive leadership enhances healthy relationships between those in ranks and junior officers. This leadership has the capacity to promote healthy working environment in the criminal justice system. This leadership style improves performance in justice administration as well as job satisfaction among workers in the criminal justice system. As a matter of fact, many profit oriented organization have continued to impress this culture (Jones-Burbridge, 2012). It is therefore effective in all agencies that administer justice. Supportive leadership in criminal justice system enhances functionality from the fact that it provides healthy structures for consultation and to better the output.
Possessing supportive leadership in the criminal justice system translates to effective leadership which characterizes many organizations. Criminal justice system therefore, needs to impress this leadership from the fact that its employees have to work in collaboration to dispense justice. The agents of criminal justice system need to collaborate with other stakeholders to deliver justice to the citizens. In achieving this, there must be a kind of leadership that supports these linkages. Collaboration in justice dispensation eliminates conflicts among agencies and promotes making a decision from all round dimension (Wright, 1999). With supportive leadership, efficiency, transparency gets achieved in justice processes.
Instrumental leaders promote goal-oriented culture. Criminal justice leadership similarly need team building. In the process of justice administration, instrumental leadership remains essential (Casimir, 2010). Leaders in the criminal justice system need to implement teamwork as a way of building capacity among partners to attain the objectives to justice demand. Team building and collaboration remains an important tool in skill acquisition which remains a component that determines service delivery.
Effective leadership in criminal justice system remains a key demand that helps in improving performance (Mannion, 2009). The reason is that organizational culture always revolve around leadership abilities and participation in activities that have direct impact on many people Effective leadership affect culture which similar determine organization’s performance. In criminal justice system, effective leadership needs to be that which supports employees and always ready to collaborate with important actors.
Cultural aspects such as innovation, stability, people orientation, risk taking, attention to detail, team orientation and assertiveness motivate employees in criminal justice system. This culture is vital in criminal justice agencies from the fact that they are key factors that impact performance and effectiveness in service delivery (Mohr, 2015). Criminal justice leadership must be flexible to deal with many dynamics and real needs of citizens. These leadership styles remain very crucial in delivering quality service in criminal justice.
Behavioral Theory and Criminal Justice System Leadership
Behavioral theory plays a critical role in Criminal Justice from the fact that it assists in manipulating stakeholders to efficiently dispense justice. Criminal justice system leadership has the obligation to get molded on transformational theory, transactional theory, and contingency theory (Wright, 1999).In the leadership of criminal justice system, contingency theory demands the unification of leadership style to a situation that is present. As a result, this theory proposes interlinking different leadership styles to implementers and on organizational aims(Mannion, 2009). When focused on the criminal justice system, the theory presents dimensions which include situational theory and path-goal theory. Path -goal theory affirms that strategic leaders must have the capacity to assist their teams to reach personal goals. Focusing on the criminal justice system, leadership needs to assist junior officers in all agencies of criminal justice to reach their target goals through motivation. Criminal justice leadership can achieve this through allocating responsibilities based on officer’s skills, expertise as well as abilities. Leadership in criminal justice system must have the capacity to offer guidance, directions, counseling and incentives to its staff. On the other hand, the situational theory is where leaders need to have the capacity to alter leadership techniques and approaches s in situations that are complex and demand to reason. The situational theory asserts that complex situations need leaders who can work with what is available in a strategic way (Wright, 1999). For instance, leaders need in criminal justice system must have the ability alter their leadership styles on abilities of their subjects.
On the other hand, transactional theory asserts that there must be a contract form in leadership where two parties get bound by responsibility demands prior getting assigned. Workers in criminal justice system need to be bound by the orders from leadership and carry out responsibilities and reward to come after work accomplishment. In criminal justice system, this leadership style need to apply from the fact that responsibilities involves order taking and requesting private investigators services in some responsibilities(Mannion, 2009). Leadership should also have an ability to recognize goo work from junior employees. This can be done through recommending the officer or helping the officer to get other incentives from the government like pay increase.
Leaders in the criminal justice system should also follow transformational theory. Transformational leaders have the ability to engage low ranked officers, create trust and enhance links to effect motivation, morality as well as service delivery. Leadership in criminal justice system have an obligation to emphasize on juniors officers and facilitate them to reach their potentials and up their output (Lok & Crawford, 1999). Transformational leaders in the criminal justice system are also visionary leaders, and when they lead the system, it can come service delivery knit. Since criminal justice system get faced with much dynamism, it is vital for the system to have visionary leaders who can work on yesterday to handle today and use today to determine tomorrow.
Criminal Justice Leadership and Planning
Planning remains a critical undertaking in preparing for criminal justice tomorrow. Criminal justice leadership must have the ability to come up with strategic plans to specify activities to get performed different actors , they way to get performed, time limits as well as resources . Criminal justice leaders must have the ability to predict the future to prescribe course of actions to meet the objectives (Wright, 1999). Planning in criminal justice system demands strategic leaders. The process remains integrated with different plans. This involves strategic planning, operational planning and results management.
Criminal justice leadership must have a strategic plan which ensures that the system responds to dynamism in the environment (Cornelius & Dively, 2008). Criminal justice system leaders must be able to describe current status; specify where to go and the way to get there. Effective leadership must remain informed in devising an effective strategic plan that positively influences the future criminal justice system. Strategic planning is important to criminal justice from the fact that it helps the actors to think strategically. It gives a vision and also clarifies the direction for future. Additionally, it helps effectively handle changes in the environment. The strategic plan is also vital to criminal justice system since it promotes teamwork and solves major organizational issues (Lok & Crawford, 1999). It also improves performance, efficiency as well as productivity. Criminal justice leadership must take the initial step in strategic planning by developing of the initial agreement. The agreement must have the planned purpose, steps to take and resources to get used. It can then identify and clarify external mandates on the criminal justice system. Most of these steps are available in the legislation for public organizations. Leaders must also carry out stakeholders’ analysis to incorporate views in the plan so that it can get affected collaboratively. Criminal justice leadership must also assess internal as well as external environment to determine the systems’ strengths, weaknesses, threats as well as opportunities. This evaluation remains vital in all organizations which dispense criminal justice. It assists criminal justice systems to devise effective as well as realistic strategies (Wright, 1999). Strategic issues identification gets followed by developments of strategy for the system. Similarly, criminal justice leaders must ensure that the plan describes the system in the future.
Criminal Justice Leadership and Community Relations
Criminal justice leaders must also have the ability to promote public evaluation of criminal justice system. The reason is that many factors have the ability to influence public confidence as well as satisfaction with agencies of criminal justice (Lok & Crawford, 1999). For instance, personal attributes including race, socioeconomic status, age as well as neighborhood factors influences public confidence on police officers. On race and criminal justice, for instance, research revealed that black minorities always provide less favorable police conduct rating when compared to white citizens. The research remains consistent with other research carried out in Australia. It, therefore, presents a volatile relationship characterizing the police and the ethnic minority citizens. Criminal justice leadership must be aware of this to ensure they devise ways to improve the situation (Wright, 1999). When it comes to Age and criminal justice, young individuals tend to present more contact with police as compared to older individuals (Davis, Cronley, Madden & Kim, 2014). They are hence, likely to become victims of violent offenses than older people. The prevalent bad contacts easily result in lower ratings on police by younger people. This trend is critical in planning fro initiatives that can reduce crime. When it comes to socioeconomic status and criminal justice, high socioeconomic status individuals tend to offer support easily to the police and likely to rate police officers positively as compared to those in lower socioeconomic status. Hence, it is believed that police officers tend to remain differential to middle as well as high-class people to get positive evaluations from particular society members (Sarver & Miller, 2014). Criminal justice leadership must have the capacity to understand this so that the relationship between the criminal justice system and the community is strengthened (Mannion, 2009). When criminal justice leadership examines demographic differences in the opinions, it provides them with vital information how personal attributes affects criminal justice system rating. The police rating by citizens always bases on demographic traits among other things. People’s contact with criminal justice agencies significantly influences evaluation.
Effective leadership remains an essential aspect to achieve high performance as well as ratings in the criminal justice system. Citizen ratings depend on demographic issues and contact frequency between individuals and the criminal justice system. Hence, procedural justice determined by the type of leadership determines how the police and the entire criminal justice system get rated. Similarly criminal judicial system must always have a type of leadership that impresses cooperation and performance. Alignment of behavioral theory in criminal justice leadership can assist to keep the concentration on service delivery and develop other players. The criminal justice system must have visionary leaders who can pursue stakeholders to enhance goal achievement. Good leaders in criminal justice system must also portray strategic resource management and eliminate discriminatory in service delivery. To conclude, supportive and strategic leadership in criminal justice is a constituent that can enhance operations. The contrary is also true in that poor leadership negatively affects service which is justice miscarriage.
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My knowledge on narratives was limited before I joined English Language program. I really like creative and descriptive writing because it gives me a chance to express my inner most thought and imaginations. I had a short stay in United Kingdom where I learnt to speak English. My three years stay in USA has also helped me improve spoken English. I have also stayed in English Language Program for one and a half years.
The previous writing instruction helped me to perfect my writing skills in term of use of tenses, word selection and other grammar issues. This background helped me to fit in this program by giving me the necessary foundation to build on the instruction of this class.
I choose the topic because of my close relationship with my relatives and especially my mother who have always been with me. The events of her illness shaped my belief system. I managed to bring it to life through perfect sentence construction, wise choice of words and grammar rules. My choice of vocabularies and phrases was also good. I have also managed to create a vivid picture in the mind of the reader through descriptive writing.
The writing center offered me one of the best opportunities to perfect my writing. Through the skills and knowledge that I have gained in the program, I have been able to perfect my essay. It has helped me identify some mistakes that I had constantly ignored such as use of comma and other punctuation marks. The class has also helped me a lot in signal clauses. Procrastination was one of the challenges I encountered in process writing. I occasionally pushed some activities to some future date, which challenged in time management.
Study indicates that an entity is believed to have moral status if its interests morally apply to some degree for the entity’s own sake. In this case, the entity has the ability to wrong or can be wronged. We say that an entity has moral status if the actions of its suffering somehow develop a situation that can be termed as somewhat morally bad.
Moral standing and legal standing are almost the same, and in most instances they are used interchangeably. No standing, indirect standing, and direct standing are some of the common general views of moral standing used in different situations. Humans are believed to have direct moral standing, and that is the reason why they manage to develop sound decisions as compared to other animals.
Based on a utilitarian thought, using animals for meat production is not ethical simply because they believe that animals have moral rights and that they should never be used as a source of food. Animals should have the right of equality whereby animals should not be used for research purposes because this will create some pain during the research activities, (Goodin, 2010).
Consumerism is the organized efforts by governments, groups, and individuals with a purpose to protect consumers from practices and policies that infringe their rights to fair business practices. It is the economic policy that states that any given market is shaped by choice and strategies of consumers. The policy highlights down fundamental rights such as right to information, right to choice, and right to safety.
A number of factors contributes and promotes the aspect of consumerism. A shift in personal values, lack of financial education, aggressive and intrusive advertising, and easy access to consumer credit are some of factors that contribute to the aspect of consumerism. Evidence shows that easy access to consumer credit is the most prominent factor simply because credit card companies get a lot of revenue from the card’s fee.
It has been noted that in a market, that concentrate largely in activities of capitalistic, sellers always focuses on proper advertising campaigns for the purpose of increasing their sales. Although sellers to some point tend to fulfill the needs of the consumers, they slightly cut the value of what they offer to the buyers so that buyers can return and come back for more, (Goodin, 2010).
Studies that have been developed in the recent times, consumerist behaviors develop a lot of effects in the economy. Consumerist behaviors should be reduced due to a number of reasons. Evidence shows that consumer behavior affects environment, jobs, producers and that are why it should be reduced.
In order to end consumerism, there are several approaches that can be used. Shunning advertisements that come along will help reduce the level of consumerism in the economy. Another thing is by stop spending money on any advert that comes along. One should always be non competitive in order to stop and deal with the issues of consumerism.
It is true that in order to deal with poverty, we should do more than what we are currently doing. By doing more, I think my life will be different simply because I will have more sources of income, (Goodin, 2010).
Goodin, D. K. (2010). Social Insecurity and the No-Avail Thesis: Insights from Philosophy and Economic History on Consumerist Behavior. Ethics, Place & Environment, 13(1), 15-18. doi:10.1080/13668790903554022
There are various frameworks proposed by scholars and consultants for analyzing strategic situations. Strategy in business is a catch term that to present various meanings. Executives of a business use terms like acquisition strategy, branding strategy, and services strategy to mean various aspects they are explaining at a given time. Generally strategy by the CEOs means an overreaching and integrated concept of how a business will achieve its goals. A unified strategy of a business should have various elements.
There are five main elements that a strategy should have. These are; 1.) Vehicles; meaning how the business will reach its final goal. 2.) The second is arena, which means the areas where the business will be active. 3.) The differentiators that determine how a business will win in the marketplace. 4.) Staging. This so the sequences and speed of moves. 5.) Economic logic meaning the way a business will attain its returns. The first section of this paper will evaluate these five elements of Home Depot strategy. The second part will be on Home Depot SWOT analysis and give recommendations on a strategy to enhance strengths and opportunities for Home Depot. The last part is on a plan for Home Deport to deal with its threats and weaknesses.
The elements of strategy
The strategy of Home Depot has various important elements. First are the Low prices. The company offers competitive and low price, which is a central feature in the concept of warehouse retailing. The company’s strategy is to be a low cost provider. Home Depot strategy has the arena through enhancing its main retail network via unique and innovative merchandise. Home Depot aims to change needs by focusing on home improvement market. The company taps into the market of residential builders through acquiring three top ten providers in 2002 through installed flooring (Annual Report, 2012). Through the "customer-back" initiative for decision making, Home Depot is dedicated to establishing a positive relationship with its customers. This is through the do-it-for-me (DIFM), the professional, do-it-yourselfers (DIY), to many existing and emerging segments of customers (Annual Report, 2012). Home Depot aims to offer the best products and services (Annual Report, 2012). These are the areas of the business strategy that Home Depot aims to be active.
Vehicles are the means that assist company how will we get there. Home Depot has a unique culture that is based on commitment and dedication to the entrepreneurial spirit. The company through its entrepreneurial spirit is a vehicle of attaining its goals. The elements of this entrepreneurial spirit involve caring for the people, being connected to communities, providing excellent customer service, doing the right thing, building relationship, creating of value to shareholders, and respecting all people.
Attaining a compelling marketplace does not mean that the organization has to be at the extreme end in differentiating. However, it means having the best differentiators combination that confer with the given marketplace advantage. This is a philosophy that Home Deport uses so as to gain competitive advantage. Home Depot has presented a challenge on traditional retailing assumptions. Unlike other retailers, the company has managed to attain its success through differentiation. The traditional approach in retail marketing is based on the idea that, since the inventories of products is identical, and then differentiation in its meaningful sense has to be built through location convenience and price advantages. However, for Home Depot this is a wrong assumption. The accessibility of products and low prices is within their concern, but differentiation for Home Depot is based on the people. The employees of the company exhibit powerful loyalty, and this enables them be the main resource of the company. These employees have trades expertise and work in building trades (Galup Business Journal, 2000).
Staging is a strategic element that is determined by the resources of a company. Staffing and funding of an initiative at any given level is determined by a strategic campaign and its urgency. Credibility and the pursuit of early winning do also impact on staging. Home Depot has tactics of gaining early footholds. The initial strategy is placing emphasis on low prices as a competitive strategy that has allowed the company to attain the strongest foothold in the industry that it is enjoying today. With the increased and stiffening competition, Home Depot has introduced new services that aim at differentiation. This is not simply with the aim of appealing to the masses, but tailoring more specific and individual products to fit individual segments of customer base. Home depot has, therefore, used low cost as its strategic staging and has made major efforts in differentiation of its products so as to further hold the market (Thodore, 2012). Through staging, Home Depot has managed to get new diversifications in the industry and gained international markets.
Home Depot, just like other major Fortune 500 companies, has established high bred cash balance plans and contribution plans. Due to the economic downturn, the company is expecting to gain a large share in its professional market through providing line products that are slightly below the high end lines. In the recent few months, Home Depot has managed to attain its profit and growth despite the volatile market. Since January 2013, Home Depot has bounced back its moving average by establishing a buy zone. The housing market rebound has significantly contributed to the market growth by delivering 285 in the rise of profits and 7% sales gain (Investors. Com, 2013).
General External environment
Home Depot is well known for the creation of opportunities through charitable contributions and community awareness. The company has undertaken strenuous efforts of impacting the community and being able to present to the community its good image. Though this can be seen as something out of the company’s goodness, business minded people see this as a way through which the company is developing its opportunities. In the company’s effort to help out people, the company has maintained constant business even at times of major economic recessions. This is by allowing its customers to pay low process to fix problems and buy materials.
This in the end gives Home Depot and opportunity that is not earned by industries and competitors. The company has over the recent years been increasing its earnings, and it is an amazing aspect at the times of recession. The company has managed to benefit from the construction of real estate expansion. This has resulted to reduced interests rate. Home owners through the low prices offered by Home Depot are able to save money and refinance their homes by putting money back to their homes (Home Depot, 2013). Most of this money goes to the various stores belonging to Home Depot.
The company bases its stores in various demographic studies. In 2002, the company increased its stores to more than 1000 as an effort of its opportunity. The stores are situated in highly populated areas close to the competitors. For example, in most of the southern areas, there is the “Do It Yourself,” stores. The customers living in the Southern region do have a culture of appreciating quality. The company has further explored the global market such as opening stores in Canada, Mexico and China (Yahoo Finance, 2002).
The main threats facing Home Depot is the down spiral economy in the United States. Every industry is affected by the economic downfall. Despite the fact that Home Depot has managed to maintain stable numbers during this period. It cannot render it safe, and there is a constant worry on how to maintain growth, expansion profitability. At the times of recessions, businesses worry about the customer’s spending.
Home Depot is also faced with the threat of completion. The main competition comes from Lowes since it competes at a national level at a consistent basis. Lowe and Home Depot have almost expanded at an equal rate. This poses a threat to Home Depot because the company will consistently have to differentiate its products and services. Home Depot due to the stiff competition with Low has to ensure that it does not have to sell almost identical products and at the same price as that of its rival. If Lowe will continue to grow in the same rate as Home Depot, then this is a vital aspect to watch out.
The organizational structure of the company is one which has established various stores in a single market. This is with the goal of having multiple units to serve a single market. This move is a weakness that the company has. The sales of the third quarter fell because of this strategy. Therefore, there is a need for Home Depot to taking the move of locating these stores apart and also to diversify the location of the stores. The decline of stock prices is a major weakness that Home Depot has to deal. This is because it will lead to shareholder dissatisfaction. There is also the challenge of lack of training, characterized by slow recruitments and training of new workers. Finally there is the challenge of Depot overload for it results to clustering and reduced earnings.
The company has topped with the implementation of modern day technologies in every store. The company has extended the amount spent on Research and development so as to lead to better systems. Implementation of digital business systems and condense operations.
Home Depot provides SPI (Service Performance Improvement) service that aim at providing customers with an enjoyable shopping experience. This reduces the culture of goods in shelves. The company introduced the self-checkout registers and this gives them a sense of control.
There are minimal chances of new entrants since the industry has attained its maturity. In cases where a new competitor aims to enter the market, it is put off by the popularity of Lowe and Home Depot
These two companies at the end of the day go home with most of the business. Therefore, there are minimal chances for a new company to enter the market so as to compete with the giant companies in the industry. The companies have already established their brand names and companies will always remain faithful and loyal to them. Home Depot has also managed to reduce its costs, and this has given Home Depot a chance to sell its products at the least price possible.
Rivalry among firms
Home Depot has to compete with 10 competitors, but Lowe Cos Inc is the main one since it competes with Home Depot at a national level. The other competitors are; Home base Inc, ACE Hardware, Woolham Lumber, Hughes Supply and True Value. The competition facing Home Depot is above the pace set by the industry. It has no equal competitor (Home Depot, 2012).
The industry has grown with regard to the competitors. However, there is no any other company that has a similar size as that of Home Depot. This enables the company to sell low price products compared to the smaller companies. The company provides customers with a diversified line of products because of its major resources and large corporate size. Customers are aware of the products offered by Home Depot and will prefer them than those of Ace Hardware. The industry does not have a fixed cost. Home Depot and other companies in the industry do not work on the same set and restricted schedules. Home Depot enjoys its option of buying resources and goods as needed. Via logistics the company is able to decide how much, where and when questions should be related to the demand of its products and its supply.
The increasing of market share for Home Depot has been through the opening of many stores in various parts of the country. The new property and growing real estate’s gives the company an opportunity for growth in future (Home Depot, 2013).
Fear of substitute
The industry does not create substitute services. Companies can only develop substitute services via lumbar sell and deliver them at a lowered cost to customers. Such places are not known among competitors, and this poses a major pain in the provision of substitute service that can be offered at a much lower price compared to that of Home Depot.
Buyer bargaining power
Buyers can decline the price of a product. Home Depot sells numerous products at a much lower costs that that of the competitors. The selling price for Home Depot is, therefore, one which customers are comfortable with. This makes the buyers buy products from Home Depot. There are no many negotiations with customers before agreeing on a price.
The stakeholders for Home Depot are companies which have contracts for the products to be sold by Home Depots’ stores. There are state regulations and city regulations that Home Depot has to abide. These shareholders have a minimal share when compared to other large companies.
Home Depot sets its price levels with the suppliers. The large quantity of products makes up the profit of each product. The main competitive advantage that Home Depot has been the large number of suppliers.
Value chain impact
Home Depot can provide products at a low price because it is able to eliminate distributors. Home Depot has its line of distributors and this result into a reduction of costs
Addressing weakness and threats
Home Depot has to have innovative and new ways of differentiating its products so as to deal with the competitors, mainly from Lowe. The company should not simply focus on reduced prices since this is an economic issue that may contribute to stagnant growth and low profitability. The company has to focus on maintenance costs. This is to prevent union organizational issues.
This paper has presented the five elements of that define Home Depot’s strategy. These are staging, vehicle, economic logic, differentiation, and arena of the strategies used by Home Depot for achieving its objectives. The paper has further presented the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats faced by Home Depot. The SWOT analysis has presented the internal environment, industry environment, and the overall industry that Home Depot is in. This includes a plan on how to deal with the mentioned strengths and weakness within the value chain.
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Research Topic: How does the scarcity of a resource such as oil or computer technology, affect your daily life?
Impact of the Scarcity of Resources on the Daily Life
Attaining sustainability in the availability of scarce resources is the principal objective of economic activities. Excessive dependence on oil energy is a primary cause of degradation of natural resources. Resources are components of production; they are used to produce goods (Blinder & Baumol, 2012). Scarcity is the lack of enough resources to produce goods sufficient to satisfy human wants. Scarcity is a fundamental problem of economics (Frank & Bernanke, 2000). The scarcity of key resources affects the production possibilities through its effect on the factors of production including land, capital, entrepreneurship, and labor. The key questions in economics are what, how, and for whom to produce goods and services. Land as a factor of production encompasses all natural resources, including agricultural land, minerals, water, and wildlife. Water, oil, natural gas, phosphorus, coal, and rare earth elements such as scandium are natural land resources that are most drained by the human population. Oil is a scarce natural resource, and hence, is a critical economic resource.
In line with the outlook of the demand side of natural resources, the projections of the increase in global population suggest a rise of 32% from the current 6.9 billion to 9.1 billion in 2050. In addition to population explosion, there is also the effect of the emerging economies such as china, India, and Brazil, which harbor an increasing number of affluent consumers. These emerging economies are heightening the effect of the scarcity of natural resources particularly the demand for energy and protein-rich diets including meat and dairy products. In terms of production, diets that are rich in meat and dairy products are more resource-intensive than other diets. The rising demand for energy creates an arbitrage relationship between food and fuel (Frank & Bernanke, 2000). In line with the relationships discussed, the rising demand for key resources is expected to emerge by the year 2030. For instance, the World Bank projects that the demand for food products will increase by approximately 50% by 2030. In particular, meat-based products will have their demand rising by 85% by the same year. In its 2009 World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency projects an annual 1% increase in the demand for oil between now and 2030. The current demand for oil is 85 million barrels per day. Adjusting this for the annual increase in demand, the daily demand for oil in 2030 will be 105 million barrels. Due to its scarcity and its significance in production, oil has an immense impact on the production and prices of basic human needs such as food (Blinder & Baumol, 2012).
Purpose of the Study
This paper examines the impact of scarce resources on the daily life of a person, using oil as a sample scarce resource. The study also explores the solution that has been proposed an alternative source of fuel.
Results and Findings
Experts in the energy industry believe that is on the verge of reaching the peak of global oil extraction (Frank & Bernanke, 2000). Once the world attains the peak of oil production, the world will witness a decline in the easily available supply of oil. The price of fuel will increase drastically. Unprecedented high social, economic, and political costs will result. The increase in the global prices of oil suggests that the energy market has entered a critical period of scarcity. The implications of the scarcity of oil could be significant and far-reaching (Hamilton, 2008). Oil is a critical factor of production. In addition to being a widely utilized consumption product, significance of the use of oil includes transportation and production of other commodities. Oil is a highly traded commodity. In the period between 2007 and 2009, its annual exports averaged USD 1.8 trillion. This translated to almost 10% of the total world exports. The significance of oil in the global trade implies that shifts in the oil market conditions have both a direct and indirect impact on human life through its consequences on inflation, poverty, and external imbalances. A decline in the availability of affordable energy will cause a significant impact on food production and, the cost of transportation of products (Friedman, 2002). The scarcity of oil affects the daily life of a person in the following ways.
Production of Consumer Goods
The rising scarcity of oil will lead to an increase in its price (Hamilton, 2008). Manufacturing costs and distribution of manufactured consumer goods particularly food products are subject to the level of the price of oil (Frank & Bernanke, 2000). This drives up the cost of food production. Food production companies transfer this cost to the consumer. In this respect, the scarcity of products such as oil is felt in the daily life because you have to cope with the rising cost of food, which is a daily need.
Home and Business Energy Use
Many households use gas for their cooking and home heating. Propane gas is used primarily to heat homes. It is a by-product obtained through refinery of oil. Therefore, its price is likely to rise alongside the rise in the price of crude oil.
When gasoline prices increase, commuters, tourism industries, and freight companies all feel the impact (Hamilton, 2008). They start using public transit, taking few road trips in summer vacation, and downsizing vehicles in favor of economy cars. The imminent attainment of the peak in oil production will have a long-term effect on both personal and commercial transport. People will reduce the use of automobiles and seek alternative modes of transportation for their transport needs. People whose localities do not have affordable transport options spend a significant proportion of their disposable income due to the high travel costs incurred (Friedman, 2002).
The principal cause of climate change and global warming is the rising amount of carbon dioxide released through the burning of fossil fuels including natural gas and fuels (Hamilton, 2008). Therefore, global reduction in the production of carbon dioxide involves decreasing the magnitude of petroleum and natural gas usage. From a micro-economic perspective, an individual should make choices among alternatives influenced by the consideration of the shortages in oil supply and sharp increases in price (Blinder & Baumol, 2012). The declining supply of oil causes an individual to reduce usage of oil and gas. Solar energy is an option because it costs less and is under the control of the country that invests in it (Hamilton, 2008). In addition, it produces clean energy and offers a solution to the environmental problem of pollution. However, the problem in developing new sources of energy is that it takes time to develop and may be impossible to accomplish in the near future.
Tremendous costs have already been incurred by means of investment in infrastructure including mining, pipeline, distribution, and transportation. Therefore, coping with the consequences such as high prices of food and transportation requires making individual choices. For instance, it is less costly to travel by train rather than by aircraft. In addition, it is necessary to restrict the frequency of using a personal car, in order to add to the lessening of global carbon emissions (Hamilton, 2008).
In terms of increasing costs of transportation, people may relocate to places that have easy access to efficient public transport services or may move to places which are close to workplaces. Therefore, people may incur high costs of housing because real estate prices may increase to reflect the changes in preference for housing. An alternative may be to use electricity-powered automobiles or those that use energy from biofuels, natural gas, or liquids from goal, but they may have expensive initial cost of purchase. In relation to the problem of food production, it may be fundamental for government authorities through encourage local processing of food products through investment in processing equipment.
The fundamental problem of economics is that resources are scarce while human wants are not (Blinder & Baumol, 2012). Oil is a vital natural resource whose scarcity has a significant impact (Hamilton, 2008). Scarcity has an effect on everyone. First, people have to make choices between alternatives because they cannot access or afford everything they want. Human wants are unlimited, but natural resources are limited. This means that some wants may go unsatisfied. Second, scarcity necessitates a rationing device. This is a mechanism that decides who gets the available quantity of goods. Price is a rationing device. The person that pays the required price gets the resource. Third, due to scarcity, people compete to purchase resources.
Scarce resources affect the daily life of a person through their impact on the factors of production including capital, land, entrepreneurship, and labor. The consequent negative impact on the cost of life necessitates the need to make choices among potential alternatives. This affects transportation, food choices, and home energy use, among other activities that utilize energy from oil. Hydroelectric power and biofuels provide alternative sources of energy that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Therefore, the choice of an alternative to oil-energy must ensure little impact on the environment and affordability. Further research must investigate and quantify the impact of introducing solar energy and other green energy sources that supplement hydro-electric power, in terms of cost reduction and availability of energy.
Blinder, A.S. & Baumol, W.J. “Microeconomics: Principles and Policy (12th ed.)”, Mason, OH: Cengage, 2012
Frank, R & Bernanke, B, “Principles of Microeconomics”, New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2000
Friedman, L.S. “Microeconomics of Public Policy Analysis”. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002, Retried from http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7309.html
Hamilton, JD, “Understanding Crude Oil Prices”, National Bureau of Energy Research, NBER Working Paper No. 14492, 2008. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14492
The rise and fall of consumer culture is an article by Erik Assadourian, which is an article with different reasoning and opinions which is believed to having shaped culture. According to this author, he presents his idea about how civilization can help in solving environmental problems. The author argues that, through saving human civilization, it will necessitate a radical revamp in our current culture which is the culture of consumerism. There are different things that the author focus on in the article which tends to reflect on his opinion about the role of countries in consumerism and the way it has affected today’s culture. Erik views consumerism as corruption and people should try to avoid it despite being something that people know it naturally (Assadourian, 2010).
Today, when people are growing up, we tend to be faced with different kinds of consumerism where advertisement in houses, cars, clothes, foods, and luxury items are normally put in front of us n a daily basis. The culture is what usually molds people in the manner that people act and think. According to this article, it indicates how people think that they are brought up in an environment where they believe that there are certain items that they should buy so that to survive.
We must understand that it is an act of survival and people need to decide whether their consumerism is a necessity or if it extends to the desires and wants beyond need. In regards to today’s life, the article, indicate that humanity tend to use 1/3 more than the capacity available on earth. Today, a key stimulator to consumerism is the media which people have been adapting to take the knowledge in as it is from the media that people learn about items that are being sold (Assadourian, 2010).
Assadourian, E (2010). The rise and fall of consumer cultures World Watch Institute
The emergence of technology has led to inventions aimed at making man’s life easier. Historically, man went about his day performing his tasks manually. Gradually machineries were invented to make work easy. Farm machineries simplified farm work that was characterized by hard labor. In offices machines took up task that man used to perform manually. Task such as writing and paper filing ceased to exist as they were replaced by computers. Technological changes are dynamic meaning inventions are bound to arise. The invention of the World Wide Web was the ultimate technological advancement that man had been waiting for. Any information that man needed could be accessed with ease via the internet. Students, instructors, researchers and virtually anyone can use the internet to access any type of information he or she may need. This form of technological advancement may be viewed as a positive step towards development. However, the internet/world web has resulted to a reduction of man’s intelligence as he has grown dependant on the internet even for basic common sense tasks.
The internet has resulted to a reduction of man’s concentration when faced with a task that requires intensive involvement of the mind. The joys of reading a text from the first to the last page are nonexistent as readers prefer to read the summarized versions found on the internet. Individuals with easy access to the internet prefer to read summarized notes of an article or a book than read the entire book. Man no longer has the concentration to read and entire hard copy of a text. The task of manually reading a book is nowadays seen as tiring and time consuming.
The internet has also affected the reasoning capabilities of man. In the past, a researcher would visit the library and peruse through different text, journal and articles before beginning the writing task. The emergence of Google has seen researchers take less than twenty minutes to source for information for their research. There mere click of a button in Google provides a researcher with immense information. While this may be viewed as a positive attribute to the internet, it has affected man’s ability to reason (Carr, 2008). Man only goes through the information provided after the internet search. The traditional mode of searching through different books and article in the library broadened the researchers mind as he read text and books that had information beyond his topic. Google fails to provide man with a broadened knowledge base as the internet search is very specific.
The internet also interferes with a reader’s ability to absorb information and retain it for long. The internet has created a sort of dependability that has made the human brain lazy. Man reads content for the sake of reading and acquiring the immediate information. For instance, when completing an assignment, a student will specifically search through the internet for the answer. He will have no interest in prior information related to the answer. The student will also write answers as provided on the internet without critically thinking over it. The internet also provides readers with the ability to scan over text hence low retention of information.
In the past, reading through books required optimal concentration so as to absorb all information. A reader would be determined to comprehend all information on a book so as to avoid reading the text again (Carr, 2008). Information on the internet is, unfortunately, readily available hence reader see no need to delve so much on the information. Readers no longer bother to recall information that they are confident they can find on the internet. A mere click of a button will take them to the exact material they are seeking. The hassle of reading text again in case some information is forgotten is none existent.
The internet has also taken up the role of the human brain to think, analyze and resolve problems. In short, the internet has taken over most task that involved intellectual activities. The emergence of technology saw the emergence of the internet that could be programmed to perform any task. For instance, man does not have to remember that he has an appointment at a given time on a given date. He can easily set his computer to remind him when the day arrives. The adult brain is said to be very plastic hence nerve cells breakdown, and new ones are created (Carr, 2008). This is to say that an individual that was accustomed to critical thinking and analysis, as well as reading lengthy texts will gradually find it impossible to read long texts. The task of skimming through a document becomes attractive compared to the task of reading through paragraphs of a text.
Other than making man intelligent technology has diffused man’s intelligence by scattering his thoughts and attention. Traditionally, man used to read through one text at time, comprehending the details of the text before moving to another. Technology has introduced pop-ups ads. The pop-up and ads are short messages carrying snippets of information for readers. When a reader opens a web page, he is bombarded with information from the main text; pop-up ads ad text crawls on the screen (Carr, 2008). A reader thus gets tit-bits of everything, but lacks detailed knowledge of the little bits of information he has acquired. In the long run, rather than making man intelligible, and knowledgeable the internet turns man into a confused person with a mix up of relevant and irrelevant information.
There has a tendency for societies to glorify technology to the extent that man ignores the glaring deficits of these systems. It is undeniable that technology has made work simpler for mankind, but it is gradually replacing his intelligence and converting man into a robot that can be manipulated. Technology and specifically the internet have made man less intelligent than before. The desire to reason and think has dwindled as man has become reliant on the internet for all answers. The society, in an effort to keep up with the trend, has also molded to incorporate technology. It is common to see pop-up ads and texts wraps scrolling through the television and the computers. The small bits of information leave readers with numerous bits of information that they cannot easily connect and make sense of them. Man’s ability to absorb information has also dwindled as he has become reliant on content from the internet. The process of reading as practiced in the past is now perceived as tiring task. Reading is no longer a prerequisite as any information can be acquired by a single click of a button. So before embracing all forms of technology introduced in the society, it is time man analyzes its effects. The negative effects of the internet may be slow and gradual, but they may eventually leave man like zombies, with minimal mental capabilities.
Carr, N. (2008). Is Google making us stupid? Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/07/is-google-making-us-stupid/306868/
It is a standard requirement for health care facilities to have a bio ethics committee to tackle ethical issues and find the right mode of resolving the issue. Patients have certain rights that health care providers must ensure they adhere to when rendering their services. Similarly, health care professionals have certain obligations that they are required to adhere to, when serving the patient. The ethics committee often intervenes in cases where a complaint has been forwarded. In an effort to determine the precise functions and operations of the bioethics committee, I interviewed Mrs. Cain. Mrs. Cain is the chair of the ethics committee at Fairview Hospital and oversees the functioning of the committee.
Functions of the Committee
The bio ethics committee at Fairview hospital was established with the sole purpose of being an advisory body for the health care facility. As an advisory body the ethics committee facilitates discussions and resolution of ethical matters that arise sat the health care facility. The bio ethics committee exclusively deals with ethical matters and issues that the committee focuses on are thus tied to ethical considerations. It is by reviewing the various ethical issues that arise that ethics committee is able to guarantee the provision of effective health care services to patients (Nelson, & Elliot, 2012). According to Mrs. Cain, the ethics committee strives to recognize the needs, interest and rights of patients, as well as other participants working at Fair view hospital. The guiding mission of the ethics committee is to serve patients and ascertain that their interests are protected
The ethics committee at Fairview hospitals renders several services. First, the committee strives to educate the health care professionals, and support staff at the hospital on the need to uphold ethical practices when executing their tasks. The committee also assists patients and their next of kin to understand the scope of medical ethics. The committee also offers consultation services to health care providers, patients and their next of kin when faced with medical problems that have an ethical perspective. The ethics committee also plays a vital role in the development and review of existing hospital policies. Members of the committee strive to ensure that the policies that Fairview hospitals adheres to abide by the expected ethical standards. The committee regularly revises existing hospital policies to ensure that they tally with the current professional and patient ethical standards. Some of the institution’s policies include policies on organ donation, informed consent and the use of life sustaining medication.
Membership and Duties
Bio ethics committee members consist of a diverse pool of experts and stakeholders who participate in the provision of health care services. Selection for membership is based factors such as an individual’s position of the welfare and care for the sick, their perception of ethical matters, as well as their reputation in their community and profession. Health care professionals such as the head physician, the therapist, nursing administrator, psychiatrist and chief surgeon make up ethics committee members. Other non medical members include the hospital chaplain, a social worker, and patient and community representative.
The committee also has a quality improvement manager who looks at the overall performance of the facility. The committee members are required to familiarize themselves with the ethical tenets surrounding the delivery of health care services (Nelson, & Elliot, 2012). When faced with different ethical dilemmas, the ethics committee invites guest members. Guests are selected from diverse disciplines depending on their professional and the ethical issue at hand.
The members and stakeholders of Fairview hospital are involved in the decision making processes by the committee. The committee takes up ethical matters by choice or as presented by patients or their next of kin. The committee can also look into ethical matters forwarded by the executive committee of the health care facility. As mentioned earlier, the ethics committee plays a consultative role at the health care facility. Patients and their families can place their ethical complaints with the committee. The committee members will strive to understand the nature of the grievance, and agree on the best approach to come up with a solution.
A breach of ethical conduct means that an interdisciplinary meeting will be held to review the case. A final decision with regard to a case is made after a critical review and evaluation with all committee members. Overall, the ethics committee strives to consider and resolve any ethical dilemmas that may arise in the health care facility. The committee, after reviewing an ethical problem, makes recommendations on the appropriate course of action.
Impact of the Ethics Facility to the Committee
The presence of the bio ethics committee has enabled health care facilitates such as Fairview hospital to guarantee patients quality healthcare services. A health care facility that is keen on following the ethical standards of health care service delivery ascertains quality patient care. Health care professionals such as physicians and nurses are able to render their services without making any ethical breaches.
Health care professionals are also able to make informed decisions when faced with difficult medical scenarios. The issue of informed consent can, for instance, put a health care professional at an ethical cross road. Informed consent is a process by which a patient makes a medical decision about his or her health. A health care professional has the ethical duty of notifying the patient on all developments related to his or her health (Nelson, & Elliot, 2012). A legal and ethical dilemma can arise if a health care profession can, for instance, perform a surgical procedure without notifying the patient. The ethics committee thus familiarizes health care professionals with essential steps they need to undertake when performing their duties.
The presence of ethics committee has been essential in assisting health care professionals, patients and their next of kin in making the right medical decisions. The consultative aspect of the ethics committee, assists health care professionals and patients experiencing difficulties in making medical decisions. The ethics committee acts a guide assisting these groups make the right choice (Wenger, & Glick, 2013). The intervention offered by the ethical committee has assisted physicians, patients and their next of kin overcome ethical dilemmas that come about with ineffective decisions. The ethics committee assists the professionals or patients understand the medical options they have and effects of each decision.
Ethics committees have enhanced communication between physicians and patients. Since the ethics committee serves an education function, it familiarizes health care professionals and patients/next of kin on essential ethical tenets on medical care. With this knowledge, the physicians and the patient can engage in productive and interactive communication regarding proper health care and quality of life. Effective communication enables patients to raise their personal concerns and preferences with regard to treatment and effective health care services (Nelson, & Elliot, 2012). The ethics committee enables physicians to be fully equipped with diverse knowledge on effective patients care while adhering to ethical medical practices.
The ethics committee has also assisted in effective problem solving in situations where the facility or a health care professional is faced with an accusation that is ethical in nature. The committee reviews the situations and analyzes the options that the physician had, before making a decision (Wenger, & Glick, 2013). The committee can make a decision, or forward its recommendation to a higher organ such as the medical board, so that appropriate action is undertaken. The ethics committee thus ensures that physicians or patients get a fair hearing and resolve the ethical problem presented.
Health care facilities such as Fairview hospital must have an effective ethics committee that exclusively reviews the ethical matters that arise within the facility. The health care profession is very delicate as it involves health care services to human beings. The physicians and nurses need an ethics committee to guide them with regard to ethical decisions. Patients and their families also need the ethics committee to guide them in decision making, as well as listen to their complaints when they arise. An effective committee is one that has integrated persons from various professions. A multidisciplinary team ensures that the committee has the expertise to handle any ethical issue presented. An effective committee assists in resolving conflict between patients and health care providers in the case of appropriate patients care.
Nelson, A. & Elliot, B. (2012). Ethics committee. Critical access hospital retrieved from http://geiselmed.dartmouth.edu/cfm/resources/cahe/cah_guide.pdf
Wenger, N. & Glick, S. (2013). Hospital ethics committees in Israel. Journal medicine of ethics. Vol. 28. 177-182
Health Information Management Technology Resume
♦ Good Communicator
♦ Flexible/Highly autonomous
♦ Reliable and Dependable
♦ Strong Team Player
♦ Very Organized
♦Accurate Typing Skills
♦ Motivated and Innovated
♦Microsoft Word & Excel
♦ ICD-9-CM Coding
Absolute Care, 600 Lakeview Plaza Blvd, Ste. DWorthington, OH 43085. From: 09/2010 – Present
Direct Care Staff
New Millennium Home Health Care, 6031 Cleveland Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43231. From: 05/2008 – 07/2011
Home Health Aid
Aero Port Services Inc. 216 W. Florence Ave. Inglewood, CA 90301. From: 01/2006 – 04/2008
Cabin Guard Security
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Prempeh 2nd Street, Kumasi Ghana. From: 03/2002 – 11/2005
Columbus state Comm. College
|Related Courses: Medical Terminology, Health Information Systems, Human Biology, Human Pathology, Health Statistics, Quality Assurance/Health Care, Health Record Applications, Desktop Database Software, Advanced Coding and Reimbursement, Intercultural Communication, Health Data Classification Systems I (ICD-9-CM and CPT), Supervision and Management Practices for HIT, Clinical Practice, and Pharmacology for HIT|
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From Mr. H Young
Vice President, Human Resources
Ref: The Need to Switch to HMO
The company has traditionally provided the retired employees of this company a health insurance cover for those who had worked at the company for twenty years. However, with the challenging economic times, the company has to cut down costs of health insurance for employees.
This is by adopting the health maintenance organizations and abandoning the open-ended insurance. Though some of the retirees were not for this idea because of the need to maintain their doctors, the program is still very high for this company. The total number of retirees at this company are 41 and 15 of them suffer from chronic problems. The number of retirees needing our support gives us no choice, but need to cut down costs. Only 15 of them do not suffer from serious health problems.
We still stick with HMOs since they have the best ways of helping this company cut down cost. The HMO is paid at a flat fee. Our only choice for the retirees is to select a plan within HMO showing us their most preferred plan. An example of an HMO is the Accountable Care Organization. It provides coordinated care for those suffering chronic disease. This leads to the improvement of care to patients. The payment is focused on the achievement of health care quality outcomes and goals that lead to cost savings (CMS. Gov 2013). There are many other options which re well understood by retirees to suit their specific needs.
In order to discuss issues on HMO options, we will hold a meeting on July 15th to 17th 213 to explain to you the various available options. Retirees will then be given two months to return a card indicating their selected option. For those failing to return this card, company will select one for them.
CMS. Gov (2013) Accountable care organizations. Retrieved from
On June 26th 2013