Health Information Systems
Information is a vital part of healthcare delivery. Healthcare professionals need accurate information in order to diagnose the patient’s problem, issue the correct procedure and medication. Information is also used in management and administration issue. This is why healthcare organization needs an efficient system for managing information. This paper looks at the information systems that exist within the health system. It also analyzes changes in the utilization of data within the healthcare setting in the past 20 years. The paper also examines technological advances that have influenced the development of health information systems.
Information System within the Workplace
The Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is one of the critical information systems within the healthcare establishment. The EMR seeks to store and transmit patients’ medical records in digital format. The goal of this system is to eliminate deaths and injuries that are caused by medical errors. It is estimated that medical error cause between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths in a year. These errors have also increased the cost of healthcare by $ 37.6 billion. The EMR allows physicians to gain access to patient information thus enhancing the care delivery process. The physicians can easily know about the patient history including details about allergies, previous medical conditions and others.
The EMR also supports other technologies such as e-prescription. This is whereby drug prescriptions are made and transmitted electronically to the pharmacist. The e-prescription technology informs the physician about drugs interaction and other information about the drugs. The technology also minimizes errors that characterize hand written prescriptions. The EMR system also simplifies the payment system. The healthcare organization is able to get access to the patient financial information. This makes it easy for the hospital to process payments thus reducing administration costs. There are other numerous information systems with the healthcare establishment. These include; financial management system, inventory management system and human resources management system. These systems facilitate the administrative activities of the establishment.
How Data was used 20 years ago and how it is Used Today
There are fundamental differences in how data within the healthcare setting was used 20 years ago and how data is used today. One of the notable differences is the shift from paper based system of storing and conveying information to a computer based system. Twenty years ago, the paper was the main media for storing and transmitting health data. Patients’ records were written down on paper and stored in files. The only way that this information could be conveyed is through by conveying the paper records. Today, data is stored and transmitted in digital format. Patients’ medical history is stored in computers and conveyed through networks. This has enhanced efficiency in the process of managing health records.
The healthcare industry has also witnessed a shift from departmental centered system of managing information to regional systems of managing information within the last 20 years. Twenty years ago, healthcare records were managed at the departmental level. This information was transferred to other department through papers. Patients had to open new files when they shift to another healthcare provider. This system was manageable 20 years ago because people were least mobile making it possible for a person to have a single medical care provider. The society has undergone significant changes.
Today, people have become increasingly mobile. Thus, it is unreasonable to expect the majority of people to receive medical care from a single provider. This trend has created the need to an information system that enables healthcare providers, who are geographically separated, to share patient information. The electronic way of managing health record enables healthcare providers, from different geographical locations, to share patients’ records. This has enhanced quality of care by ensuring those physicians are able to obtain accurate information about the patient’s medical history. The electronic system has also reduced administrative cost by eliminating duplication of records.
The healthcare industry has also witnessed the incorporation of additional users of medical information. Twenty years ago, medical records were mainly used by healthcare professionals and health administrators. Healthcare professional used this information to make diagnoses and prescribe procedures and drugs. Administrators used this information to process payment and other administrative functions. Health consumers had limited access to this information. Today, patients and health consumers, can access their healthcare information. The electronic systems enable patient and relatives to the have access to healthcare information. This places the consumer at the center of the care delivery process thus enhancing the quality of service.
There is also a shift in the usage of data. In the past, healthcare data was exclusively used for administrate and care purpose. Today, health information is used for other purposes including research and planning. Digital medical record makes it easy for healthcare managers to analyze this data and use it in making decisions. Health records are now used to evaluate the quality of the care delivery process leading to the development of improvement plans. Health data is also used in clinical research. The digital storage of healthcare data makes it easy for the data to be used in clinical studies. Many studies have been conducted using this data leading to significant development in the medical field. The storage of data in digital format makes it easy for researchers to observe trends and patterns and make inferences.
The healthcare industry has changed from technical usage of healthcare information to strategic use. In the past, medical information was used to inform technical decisions. These technical decisions concerned diagnostic process, issuing of prescriptions and processing of payment. Today, medical data is used to make strategic decisions within the healthcare setting. Strategies are plan that take seek to bring long term outcomes to the organizations. Today, medical records are used to inform strategic decision such as; level of staffing, approach for managing invention, system for compensating employees and ways of improving the quality of care.
The type of data included in the medical records has also changed. Twenty years ago, the medium used to store and convey data limited the type of data that could be stored and conveyed. The paper based system could only store written information about the patient previous treatment, medications used, allergies and demographic information. The digital system of managing information allows healthcare establishment to store other types of information in the system. The electronic system can store radiology images, as well as, molecular data such as protein and DNA data.
Technological Advances that have influence Healthcare System
Technology is a tool for accomplishing a given task (Fett, 2005). In the information system field, the term technology may refer to tools for managing information. Advances in the technological field have played a significant role in the development of the health information system. The invention of computers is one of the technological advances that have revolutionized the health information system (Fitchman & Kohli, 2011). Prior to the invention of computer, people relied on pen, pencil and papers, to manage medical records. This made the process of managing health records cumbersome and inefficient. The invention of computer enabled the healthcare industry to shift from paper based system of storing data to an electronic system. The computer enabled healthcare establishment to create digital databases where health information can be stored. Digitizing health information made it easy for healthcare professionals to sort, locate and analyze information. It also made it easy for healthcare professionals to reproduce the records. The computer technology has evolved increasing the efficiency of health information management systems.
The invention of the internet was critical to the development of the modern health information system (Lewis, 2011). Prior to the invention of the internet, there was not efficient means of conveying medical information. Medical professional could only printout the records or store them in portable devices in order to convey information. The invention of the internet revolutionized the mode of conveying medical information. The internet enables healthcare establishments to share information through networks. This ensures that information can be conveyed over long distances within a limited time. It also reduces the cost of transmitting health information. The internet technology has also made health information readily available to users. However, the availability of this information has raised concerns about the privacy and security issues.
Health information systems play a significant role in determining the cost and quality of care. This paper has examined the information systems that exist within the healthcare setting Today, health information is managed through digital technologies. This has changed the way health data is used within the healthcare setting. Thank to this digital technology, can be shared by over large geographical distance and used for other purposes such as clinical research and strategic management. These changes have been made possible by technological advances such as creation of the internet and invention of computers.
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The Bahai Faith was founded in about one and a half century ago by Bahaullah, and it is currently among the fastest growing religions of the world. It is a monotheistic religion that emphasizes the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are three core principles that establish a basis for Bahai’s doctrines and teaching, and this include the unity of God, religion, and that of humankind. As the youngest of the independent religions of the world, Bahai stands out from other religions in several ways; it has unique global administration system and it also uses a distinctive approach to handle contemporary social problems (Bahai Org., 2013). This paper observes the concepts of deity, cosmogony, ethics, and theodicy in Bahai faith.
Baha’i as a monotheistic religion, believes in one powerful creator; God. This religion believes that the universe and all the creatures dwelling in it were created by this super being, which has control over all his creation, as well as a complete and perfect knowledge of it (Interfaith Calendar, 2012). Perhaps, different concepts of God’s nature may exist; different languages of praying to him, different names, but He is the same unique being. Bahai teachings indicate that God is too great for the finite of the human mind to adequately understand Him or construct an accurate image of him. He is far beyond His creations, and throughout all eternity human beings will only appreciate
His superior nature, but they will never formulate His clear image. In fact, human beings will always use terms such as “God is the all-powerful, all-loving, and infinitely just,” but the knowledge of human beings will always be limited to their knowledge of such attributes. Therefore, for human beings, the knowledge of God is not a direct knowledge of His essence, but it means knowledge of God’s attributes and His Qualities. Human beings attain the knowledge of qualities and attributes of God by reflecting on His deeds and the creations. Ultimately, God manifest himself through His written word, therefore, meditation on His word, which is achieved through the study of the holy writings forms the important part understanding God. Therefore, in order to gain a deep knowledge and understating of God, Baha’ism emphasizes on study, practical application based on the study, meditation and prayer (Interfaith Calendar, 2013).
Baha’i cosmology is the understanding of Baha’i’s faith reality, which is basically divided into three; God, God’s logos, and the creation. In Baha’ism God is perceived to be pre existent and the rest of creation is contingent to Him. God’s logos, on the other hand, are the realm of God’s grace and commands that pervade all created things. Appearances of the logos manifests God’s message in the physical world. Creation includes the physical world, and it is not perceived to be confined to the material universe, but breaks down into the constituent parts. Therefore, the current universe is perceived to be as a result of long lasting processes evolving to its current state; cosmological time scales. According to Baha’i, the whole universe is a God’s sign, and it is dependent on Him. Moreover, humanity was created to know God and serve his purposes. In fact, the founder of Baha’i faith (Bahaullah) wrote many words about God.
In the Suriy-i-Vafa, Bahaullah wrote “the words of God are Countless in number, and they are infinite in range.” Therefore, no one can reckon or comprehend God’s words except God himself. Bahaullah recognized five realms to exist, and these include Hahut, Lahut, Jabarut, Malakut (the angelic realm), Nasut (the physical world, which is subdivided into animals, vegetation, and minerals). Therefore, God is manifested in all the five levels, but his manifestations are within the first level, and all humans exist between the physical and the angelic realms and can choose, which to live in. Bahaullah also indicated that even though humans ought to seek knowledge, there is no human who actually understand the nature of God and his creation. While God has given rational mind to the Humans, they are unable to comprehend the deep reality since they are limited by creation (Oxford Bibliographies, 2013).
According to World Religion (2013), Baha’i Faith offers theological, spiritual, and social teachings that were established its founder; Bahaullah. These teachings were presented in various writing of Baha’i. Baha’is regard the combined teaching of this religion with that of Christianity and Islam, as the teachings that were revealed by God. These teachings, therefore, include theological statements regarding God, God’s messengers and humans, and also the social teachings that include equality of all humans, irrespective of the race, class, and gender, the harmony of religious science, compulsory education, and the process of elimination of extreme poverty and wealth, among others. Patheos (2013) indicates that the principles of Baha’i’s teachings strongly emphasize on unity and love as exemplified by the
Golden rule and other social principles. Baha’is search for truth independent of superstition and tradition. This fundamental doctrine of faith condemns all forms of prejudice regardless of the form and nature and insists that harmony must exist between religion and science. Therefore, it advocates for equality of men and women, introduction of compulsory education, abolition of extreme poverty and wealth, institution of a world tribunal to adjudicate disputes between nations, adoption of a universal language, exaltation of work, glorification of justice to be the ruling principle in the human society, establishment of universal and permanent peace, and other elements that are essential for welfare of the human being.
According to Baha’is unity is regarded as “three oneness,” and it is central in the teaching of the religion. Therefore, Baha’i faith advocates for unity for God, religion, and mankind. The oneness of God views God as essentially monotheistic and as sources of all existence, revelation, eternity, and mightiness. Therefore, even though religions differ in one way or another, God nevertheless is the same. The oneness in humanity transcends all divisions of nation, race, gender, social class, and caste.
The problem of evil is a feature that has been tried to be reconciled in the philosophy of religion. This reconciliation is towards deity; omnipotent, omnibenevolent, and omniscient. Theodicy, therefore, attempts to show the contrary between evil and deity. A great deal of response has been given to the problem of evil, and this includes an explanation that God’s act of creation and His act of judgment are just the same. Baha’is believes that God condemn evil, and this is executed and expressed in His Created-world, and his powerful opinion will be seen during the judgment day. Therefore, God’s opinion is perceived to be good because evil is bad and deserves to be punished. Baha’is also insists that God exists, omniscient, omnipotent, and He is perfectly good. Therefore, He condemns evil because a perfectly good being would always want to condemn evil.
Since He is omniscient he knows where evil comes into existence, and he has the power to prevent it as an omnipotent being. However, the fact that evil exists does not mean that God does not exist, or He is not a super-being, but it is justified by the fact that God can identify the evil doers and punish them accordingly to bring justice (Badi Blog, 2013).
The Bahai Faith is one of the recently founded religions of the world, but it has, however, gained a great in the world. It is monotheistic in nature emphasizing the spiritual unity of humankind. Its doctrines and teaching and this include the unity of God, religion and more so the unity of humankind. It also has a unique global administration system and it also use a distinctive approach to handle contemporary social problems.
Bahai Org., (2013). The Baha’i Faith. Retrieved From, http://www.bahai.org/faq/facts/bahai_faith On June 10, 2013.
Interfaith Calendar (2013). Bahai Single Deity. Retrieved From, http://www.interfaithcalendar.org/Baha'i.htm On June 10, 2013.
Interfaith Calendar, (2012). Baha’i’s beliefs. Retrieved From, http://www.religionfacts.com/bahai/beliefs.html On June 10, 2013.
Oxford Bibliographies, (2013). Bahai Faith. Retrieved From, http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195390155/obo-9780195390155-0165.xml On June 10, 2013.
World Religion, (2013). Baha’I Faith Overview. Retrieved From http://www.worldreligions.com/index.php/bahai-faith On June 10, 2013.
Patheos, (2013). Ethics and Community. Retrieved From, http://www.patheos.com/Library/Bahai/Ethics-Morality-Community On June 10, 2013.
Badi Blog, (2013). Justice on Evil. Retrieved From, http://badiblog.blogspot.com/2007/07/g.html On June 10, 2013.
Allen, CM, Martin, RC, & Martin, N. (2012), “Relations between Short-term Memory Deficits, Semantic Processing, and Executive Function”, Aphasiology, 26(3): 428-461
Evidence from prior research suggests separable short-term memory buffers for maintenance of lexical-semantic and phonological information. This stems from the fact that some patients with aphasia demonstrate higher ability for retention of semantic information than phonological information while others show the reverse. Based on recent research information, some scientists hold that deficits to maintenance of semantic information in the short term memory are related to executive control abilities. In this study, the researchers had an aim to investigate the relationship between executive function abilities and phonological short term memory and semantic processing in such patients as certain prior research studies have suggested that semantic short term memory impairment and semantic processing are critically related to executive function deficits, specific or general.
The researchers recruited and tested 20 patients with short term memory deficits and aphasia on measures of short term retention, semantic processing, and executive function tasks, both simple and complex. The study found no relationship between short term memory and performance of executive functions, both simple and complex. However, phonological short term memory was found to be related to performance of executive functions in tasks with a verbal component.
This suggests that some tasks depend on maintaining or rehearsal phonological codes. Even though semantic short-term memory was not found to be related to executive function, the performance on semantic processing tasks was related to executive function. Perhaps, this is due to similar executive task requirements, in both executive function and semantic processing tasks. The implications of the study findings have implications for the interpretation on the influence of executive function in language processing tasks.
Hoffman, P, Jefferies, E., & Lambon Ralph, M. (2010), “Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence from the critical role of semantic control”, Neoropsychologia, 49(3): 368-381
Hoffman, Jefferies, and Lambon Ralph sought to explore the proposition that manipulations of semantic control would influence the processing of semantic information in semantic short term memory patients. Semantic short term memory deficits are not selective and can occur as a result of mild disruption to the semantic control processes.
17 semantic short term memory patients were selected to take part in the study with 17 healthy participants with a mean age of 64 years recruited as controls. This study investigated four aspects of semantic control disorders including sensitivity to cues, resolving ambiguity between words, detecting weak semantic associations, and ignoring irrelevant information. All the functions were impaired in conditions requiring semantic control, regardless of the short term demands of the task. This implies existence of a mild, but task-general impairment in regulating semantic knowledge.
Through the re-interpretation of semantic short term memory patients, we can explain r apparent discriminatory deficits without the need for a specialized short term memory store. Instead, the authors conclude that semantic short term memory deficits occupy the mildest end of the spectrum of semantic disorders. This implies that deficits of semantic short-term memories are distinct and can be corrected through rehabilitation through actions that are based on the understanding of the mechanisms of memory tasks, as described in the study.
Jaaskelainen, LP, Ahveninen, J., & Sams, M. (2011), “Short term plastically as a neutral mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions”, Brain Research, 8(1422): 66-81
Many behavioral studies have defined distinct cognitive and perceptual functions in psychology such as short-term memory, sensory memory, and selective attention. However, this study examines and reviews evidence suggesting that some of these pre-defined functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms.
The study uses an integrative review of literature, a hypothetical model in which short term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory and surround-inhibitory modulations form a generic processing principle that supports involuntary attention, sensory memory, selective learning, short term memory, and perceptual learning. This study proposes that there are continuums of memory representations, rather than discrete memory systems, from short-lived memories to conceptual lengthy representations, such as those reported by studies on behavior, with respect to short-term memories.
In conclusion, the researchers review literature about short term plasticity and perceptual and cognitive functions. The conclusions are that short-term plasticity may support both attentional and memory functions. In addition, short-term plasticity may be a prerequisite for perceptual learning. In addition, the findings may imply possible contributions of short term memory and executive function deficits in treatment regimes. In line with prior research evidences, treatment regimes and rehabilitation must be evidence-based
Johnson, S., Marro, J. & Torres, J. (2013), “Robust Short-term Memory without Synaptic Learning”, PLoS One, 8(1): e50276
Short term memory in the brain cannot be explained the same way that long term memory can be explained as a gradual modification of synaptic weights. This is because short term memories happen too quickly. However, theories that are founded on cellular bi-stability do not explain the fact that noisy neurons can store information collectively, in a robust manner. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how a sufficiently clustered network made up of simple-model neurons can be induced instantly into states that are meta-stable and capable of storing information for a short time (a few seconds).
The mechanism is robust depending on different types of networks and neural models. This mechanism can form a viable means available to the brain for short term and sensory memory without the need for symptomatic learning. Phenomena that are relevant to psychology and neurobiology including local synchronization of synaptic inputs emerge naturally from this mechanism. Therefore, this study recommends further experiments to test the viability of the mechanism in a more biological setting. The complexity of the neural models and networks suggests a requirement for additional evidence that can guide in creating effective solutions for rehabilitating intelligence deficits.
Kaushanskaya, M., Marian, V. & Yoo, J. (2011) “Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning”, Acta Psychologica, 137(1): 24-35
In prior research, women perform well on short-term memory tasks better than men. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the gender differences observed in past studies are related to the involvement of long-term memory in the process of learning. The study findings indicated that women out-performed men on phonologically familiar novel or vocabulary words. However, there was no difference as regards phonologically-unfamiliar words.
Margarita Kaushanskaya, Victoria Marian, and Jeewon Yoo performed two experiments using a sample of 68 participants, 34 women and 34 men. The study used a 3-way mixed design to investigate gender difference with respect to vocabulary learning, with respect to recall accuracy and accuracy of recognition. Experiment 1 investigated inter-gender differences in vocabulary learning while experiment 2 used a within-subjects design for the purposes of confirming the findings of experiment 1.
The implication of the study is that women are likely to acquire native-language phonological knowledge involving novel word learning. Perhaps, this explains why girls and ladies are considered to have the capacity to learn more languages faster than boys and men. In school, girls and ladies often score higher than their male counterparts.
Potter, MC (2012), “Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought” Frontiers in Psychology, 3, (113): 1-11
Perception is continuous with cognition. Information is passed from the sense organs to the brain, and undergoes a transformation at every stage, combining with input from other senses, activating memories, which leads to conscious experiences and actions determined by one’s goals. Conceptual short term memory (CTSM) is a construct that express the relationship between perceptual and conceptual processes. It is a mental buffer and processor through which current stimuli and associated concepts from long-term memory are represented briefly enabling meaningful structures or patterns to be identified. CTSM is characterized by its ill-defined capacity and unconsciousness representative of everyday experience.
This paper discusses the qualitative review of evidence of the whole cycle or process involving identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, and consolidation in the long term memory and forgetting of non-structured material. The underlying aim was to review the evidence for such a process and the implications for the relation between perception and cognition.
This study has implications in the understanding of the way in which perception relates to cognition. The conclusion of the discussion helps in gaining knowledge of conception of tasks through the mechanisms and processes of the brain. This is very fundamental for rehabilitation support services, including socialization and interactions that help correct the memory deficits.
Rolls, ET, Dempere-Marco, L, & Deco, G. (2013), “Holding Items in the Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism”, PLoS One, 8(4): e61078
Short term memory has a capacity to maintain several items simultaneously. This study demonstrates the way in which the number of short-term representations that can be maintained through synaptic facilitation similar to the one found in the prefrontal context. The study findings conclude that the system can maintain only a few short-term memories active, in the same network, without synaptic facilitation.
In terms of the study methods, the investigators conducted simulations involving an integrate-and-fire network with 10 short memory populations of neurons. The aim was to maintain the activity of the network during a period of delay after application of a cue.
The research findings have implications for therapeutic actions. Knowledge of how multiple items can be held simultaneously, in the short term memory, is essential for treatment. The findings may have relevance to language implementation in the brain. The study suggests new approaches to gaining knowledge and treating the decline in short-term memory that normally occur with human aging. This is applicable in rehabilitating children with memory depreciation and enhancing their performance in an examination. For instance, this is particularly essential for learners because they are required to recall what they learn in class and answer questions, in examinations and other school activities.
Siegel, M., Warden, MR, & Miller, E.K. (2009), “Phase-dependent neural coding of objects in the short term memory”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 106(50): 21341-21346
Siegel, Warden, and Miller seek to demonstrate that neuronal information about two objects maintained in the short term memory is enhanced at specific levels of underlying oscillatory activity. The ability to maintain multiple items in memory is fundamental to behavioral intelligence. However, its neural basis is relatively not understood. Some researchers have suggested that multiple objects may be help in memory by oscillatory activity in neuronal networks, but there is little direct evidence. The study results suggest that oscillatory neuronal synchronization mediates coding of memorized items in the prefrontal cortex that is phase dependent. Encoding of memorized items at distinct phases might play a role for disambiguating information concerning multiple items in the short term memory.
The experiment was performed on two rhesus monkeys, one female and one male. The monkeys were implanted with head bolt under the effect of anesthesia, according to the standards for animal research. The monkeys performed two-item short term memory tasks. The tasks required the monkeys to remember the tasks after a brief delay. MRI scans were used as recording techniques. In terms of the implications, the study adds to previous research observations that the mean spiking level of the pre-frontal neurons reflects interactions of multiple objects in short-term memory. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that oscillatory synchrony might underlie a phase-dependent neural coding and the proposition that the distinct phase alignment of information relative to population oscillations may play a role of disambiguating individual short term memory items.
Summary and Application
The central theme of these research articles is the role and mechanisms of the short term memory in perception and cognition. While some studies have discussed research evidences on the mechanisms under which multiple items are retained in the brain, others have discussed the specific elements that demonstrate the interaction of multiple objects in the short term memory. This knowledge is particularly important in making sense of essential elements of behavior such as behavioral intelligence. My cousin loved sports and loved studying, as well. She performed in lessons and attained exceptional grades in examinations.
However, her capacity had been deteriorating slowly until last year when she attained her lowest ever grade. She studies but does not perform well in examinations.
The perception, cognition, and maintenance role of the short term memory can explain the deterioration in her examinations. The studies that explain how multiple items can be retained in the short term memory of the brain simultaneously can help in understanding this unique behavior. Perhaps, the findings may have relevance to tasks such as language interpretation in the brain. The study suggests new approaches to gaining knowledge and treating the decline perception and cognition. Researchers have also discussed in some of the articles summarized how mechanisms in the brain can facilitate encoding of memorized items and so help in disambiguating items, in the short term memory.
In preparing the annotated bibliography, I have learnt a lot about short-term memory and associated problems. I now appreciate the different mechanisms that influence the tasks of the brain. The same way that there is a relationship between learning and understanding, there is a relationship between recalling and understanding. When we understand an item of learning we are in a position to recall it better. Gaining knowledge of an item of learning enables us to store the information appropriately, in the long term memory. Knowledge of mechanisms of memory in the short term memory enables us to transform information into the long term memory. According to research evidences, information held in the short term memory can be recalled even after a long term if it is rehearsed adequately. The school studies place much demand on visual and auditory memory, the two subsystems of the short-term memory. The bottom line is the ability to hold multiple items in the short term memory. This is essentially significant for behavioral intelligence, which is a key factor in school learning and performance in examinations.
I am particularly concerned with this topic because the therapy form short term memory treatment cannot be limited to the hospital. Having knowledge of how elements of the short term memory interact can help in contributing to the rehabilitation efforts. In addition, understanding my cousin’s perception, cognition, and recall capabilities can help in determining the problem, possibly. After treatment, it is essential to help the patient to cope with the recovery process so as to return to her sports and class activities. Providing adequate care at home is essential for supporting the psychological input of the professional and ensuring that the patient does not fall back to the status of psychology. The bottom line is that knowledge of the different mechanisms of the way in which perception and cognition occur in the interventions targeted at correcting deficits in tasks, related to the functions.
In conclusion, accurate corrective mechanisms are those that are based on research evidence. This is the principal for all clinical therapeutic practices.
In week five, we learnt about the semantic memory. The semantic memory is the section of a person’s memory that stores general knowledge. It accounts for what we know. Chapter 7 of the book Cognition presents a number of researches that attempt to describe how information is retrieved from the semantic memory. According to the researches, priming is one of the way in which individuals retrieve information from the semantic memory.
A prime refers to the primary stimulus that triggers the memory retrieval process. The prime stimulus triggers the second stimulus known as the target. The target stimulus refers to any item of special interest. The target stimulus triggers the retrieval of the facilitation stimulus. This refers to a positive effect on the processing of information that is triggered by the presence of protagonist related information. Inhibition is the other stimulus within the priming process. This refers to a negative effect on the processing of information as a result of the presence of antagonist information.
One of arguments that are brought out in this study is that the amount of knowledge that a person possess determines the process of understanding. Having prior knowledge about a phenomenon increases the ability to comprehend that phenomenon. I can apply this argument in my life by ensuring that I always remained informed.
Activities such as reading, travelling and interacting with others, enhance an individual’s general knowledge and thus enhance the process of understanding. This argument has also influenced me in terms of how I explain things to other people. The argument implies that in order to promote understanding new information need to be built on an individual’s existing information. Thus, I will be explaining concept using things that the receipt of the information can relate.
Ashcraft M. & Radvansky G. (2009). Cognition. Pearson Publishers
This project finds out how well the teachers of a community-based After School program are equipped with skills and knowledge of working with students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders and Autism.
Survey method: The survey method is vital for this study for it provides numeric and quantitative description of opinions, attitudes and trends of the studied population sample. The survey will be a cross-sectional study by use of structured interviews and questionnaires for the collection of data. This is with the goal of generalizing the findings from the population sample (Creswell, 2009).
This cross-sectional study is an observational research whereby, the researcher records information concerning the subjects without having to manipulate the environment o f study. This study will involve recording on the issues that gauge the knowledge and skills of after school teachers of after school programs in handling students with behavioral emotional disorder and autism.
Methods of data collection
A. Self-administered questionnaire; the cost will involve that of administration and preparation. Online surveys are costly that this will mean that I personally visit the community based. The limitation is that there can be unclear answering. Advantage is the clear view and opinions of participants concerning the skills of after-school programs.
B. Structured reviews: many steps are undertaken in structured reviews and this means high costs. Time is taken for fieldwork, sampling, data analysis and approvals. The advantage is that it compares the redundancy of the study with other studies (Cozby, 2012).
C. Interviews; advantage is that it provides overviews of the problem of study through one to one communication. Can be less costly when done face to face.
D. Structured observations with observations the researcher will not participate in undertaking interactions. The researcher might fail to capture his view of participants. Advantage is that the researcher is unlikely to influence the participants in their real life environment (Creswell, 2009).
Population and Sample:
The sample will involve 4 community-based after-school programs. 10 teachers will be included in the study. Parents of students with autism and behavioral disorder will also be selected to participate. Eight Administrators of these after School program will be selected.
Single or multistage
This is a single study whereby I will access the names of the sample population.
Random versus convenience
This study will deal with participants who are readily and conveniently available. I will consider ways of minimizing variables since they will have an impact on the results (Creswell, 2009).
The unique characteristics (male and female) of participants are included and representative of the whole population. Other characteristics for stratification include education, income levels, and gender (Cozby, 2012).
The survey instrument used is pilot testing. The survey will test the opinions of after school administrators, teachers, and parents. No electronic method like Survey monkey will be used.
Content validity will consider the concurrent/ predictive validity to ensure that the results correlate with other similar studies. The construct validity will be achieved by ensuring that the hypothetical concepts and constructs are measured.
Piloting survey will help to measure the content validity and lead to the improvement of scales, format and items (Shah & Corley, 2006).
Dependent variables Training of teachers/ improving communication, lack of facilities for students with disabilities, and lack of facilities for students with disabilities
Intervening variable: poor academic performance, and lack of social skills among students with autism and EBD.
Independent variable: Equipping after school programs.
Shah S, & Corley, K (2006) Building better theory by bridging the qualitative and quantitative divide. Http://faculty.Washington.edu/skshah/Shah
Creswell, J (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.
Cozby, P (2012). Methods in behavioral research. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 9780078035159
A. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The theory is a hierarchy of important processes that are critical for the development and growth of the total person (McEwen & Wills, 2007). It was developed by Abraham Maslow based on the concept that some needs psychological, as well as physical, take precedence over others. These are presented in the form of a pyramid with the most basic making the base. According to the idea of the theory, if the most basic needs are not met, the pyramid is not formed because the rest of the needs are not achieved. The base levels are the deficiency needs. These are those that are not met because of a deficiency. The fifth level is the actualization level, i.e. growth level. Few people get to reach the growth level. They spend their time moving up and down the pyramid meeting the lower level needs.
It is applied in humanistic psychology and research. For example, it is instrumental in the promotion of self-care behaviors in adults. It is important in the nursing profession as it gives hope a chance. The theory provides the blueprint for prioritizing patient care according to the hierarchy of needs (Ibid).
B. Social Learning Theory by Alberta Bandura
This theory emphasizes the significance of observing and modeling the attitudes, behaviors, and emotional reactions of persons (Engler, 2009). According to Alberta Bandura, learning could be difficult if people only focused on the effects of their own actions. The theory explains human behavior as a continuous, reciprocal interaction among behavioral, cognitive, and environmental influences. Most of the human learning process occurs through modeling. Through observation, a person forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed.
Social learning theory has been utilized extensively in the study of psychological disorders and aggression, specifically in the context of behavior modification (Ibid). It is the foundational framework of the modeling technique used in training programs.
Engler, B, (2009), Personality Theories: An Introduction, Boston, MA: Cengage
McEwen, M, & Wills, E, (2007), Theoretical basis for nursing (2nd Ed.), Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Saudi Arabia culture is a typical Arabic Muslim form. It was inspired by the Arabic language and the Islamic religion. This culture is generally interesting since it is known to be non-liberal in so many ways, especially when it comes to the issues pertaining to the female gender. This paper, therefore, aims to study Saudi Arabia culture.
The Saudi Arabian cultural setting is Arab and Wahabi Islam. It, therefore, features many elements ranging from folk culture such as music and dance and more so historical ritual. Cultural mores and traditional values are known to be adapted into legal prohibitions, therefore, making the non-Muslim inside the Kingdom forbidden to practice their faith. Consumption of pork products and alcoholic beverages is prohibited by the Saudi Arabian culture. Women are also not allowed to drive a car, ride a bicycle, and even sell make up to other women. The Saudi Arabian culture is, therefore, well known for the unique way of life, which has preserved its heritage for centuries.
The conservative nature of the Saudi Arabian culture has led to restriction of various aspects that are common in other societies the world. In the 1980s, the movie theaters that were operational in Saudi Arabia were banned. However, this ban was recently slightly lifted to allow for special events such as public holidays, and also to encourage the development of the Saudi Arabia Cinema. In fact, certain television shows and films on VHS and recently the DVD are prohibited, and other television shows and films are only permitted with censorship. Perhaps, other popular entertainment forms, such as music cassettes, CDs, magazines, novels, comic books, video games, and computer software are generally permitted, provided that they can be officially censored for immorality, and not causing political offense to the government, more so the royal family.
Pertaining to the news media, educated Saudi Arabians are well updated with the issues that occur in the Muslim world, the Arab world, and the world at large. However, freedom of public expression of opinion and freedom of the press are not recognized by the Saudi Arabia government. It is perceived that public speeches, news stories, and other acts of expression do conflict with the traditional Islamic values, insult government officials and especially the royal family, dissent from the government policy, and may dwell too deeply into certain sensitive subject matters, and taboos ad eventually spread dessert, for example, the role of a woman in the Saudi Arabian society, damage caused by natural disasters, the treatment of Shiite Muslims, social problems such as those of HIV/AIDS pandemic, human trafficking, or more so embarrass the government.
The civil society is also unique in the Saudi Arabian culture. Informal public discussion pertaining to public policy is not encouraged in Saudi Arabia. However, it is not completely discouraged; it is always checked to ensure that it is not promoting disloyalty, dissent, or immorality. The government of Saudi has created a national Consultative Council and also given permission for certain forms of societies to exist, and infact, limited non-partisan elections were held in the year 2005. The Consultative Council, however, is an appointed body, which has limited powers, and the legal societies also have little ability to influence the policy of the government. Labor unions are also prohibited similar to political parties; however, a few underground political parties do exist.
The Al Ardha is one of the most compelling folk rituals of the Saudi Arabia, and; therefore, forms the national dance of Saudi. The Al Ardha is a sword dance, which is based on the ancient Bedouin traditions. This dance, therefore, include drum beats that beat out a rhythm and verses of poet chants accompanied by the shoulder to shoulder sword carrying men. Al-sihba folk music originated from al- Andalus. In parts such as Mecca, Jeddah, and medina, music and dance incorporate mizmar’s sound; a woodwind instrument used in the performance of the mizmar dance. Another important instrument in the Saudi Arabian culture is the drum, and traditional music, dance, and poetry are performed in a popular form known as Samri. Dabka is also another form of dance, which is found in the Northen parts of Saudi and belly dance is performed by ladies based in many styles; Saedi style in the west, and khaleeji style in the east.
Dabka as a popular form of dance in the Arabian world is a traditional form of unisex-line dancing. The Dabka dance is based on rhythimic stepping and jumping, and stopping, which is completely synchronized with drum. The Dabka dance is popular because it is usually danced in engagements and weddings by everyone across all ages. It is also important to note that, in the Saudi Arabian music and dance, guitars are known to be prohibited because they do not fit with the Islam religion. Moreover, songs that are sung with musical instruments are also not allowed, but instead, nasheeds, which are basically non-instrumented a cappella songs, are sung.
Saudi Arabian conservative culture and religion strictly dictate the dressing code for both men and women to the conservative nature. However, foreigners are normally given a leeway in the aspects of dressing, but they are also expected to follow the local customs, especially in public places. Therefore, generally foreign men should always wear long trousers and dissent shirts. Foreign women, on the other hand, are required to wear loose fitting skirts, which have hemlines falling low below the knee, and the sleeves of the blouses should be at least elbow length and such blouses have modest neckline. The Saudi Arabian best fashion guidelines, therefore, generally imply dressing to conceal rather than to reveal. Saudi Arabian culture on dressing does not also leave out the teenagers since they are required to dress modestly in the public; jeans should never be tight fitting, and tank or low neck tops are prohibited.
Moreover, shorts and the bathing suits should never be worn in the public places, and irrespective of the social or job status, all Saudi men are required to wear traditional dress known as the thobe, which expresses equality and also perfectly suit the hot climate of Saudi. Head dressing is also a characteristic of the Saudi Arabian culture, and Saudi men are known to have headdresses, which consist of a small white cap called the taiga, large square of cloth known as the gutra, and a double black cord known as the igal. Some men may, however, choose not to wear the igal. Saudi Arabian women, on the other hand, should appear in the public in abayah (A voluminous balk goal), a full face veil, and a scarf covering the hair fully. Perhaps, Saudi Arabian women must completely cover themselves in public and in the presence of men who are not closely related. Saudi women despite having to cover their bodies fully, they take pride in their appearance, and they, therefore, tend to put on bright and lavish materials beneath their black cloak. The law also requires non-Muslim women who live in Saudi Arabia to wear the abayah.
Saudi Arabian culture is a typical Islamic kingdom. The Saudia Arabia law requires all citizens to be Muslims. In fact, religious freedom does not exist because the government does not provide any legal recognition or even protection for other religions other than Islamic. Moreover, the government prohibits the practice of non- Muslim religions. For this reason, the culture of Saudi Arabia is not religiously rich because it lacks diversity of religion, and it is an Islamic theocratic monarchy.
Saudi Arabia has a great deal of literature books, but they are known to be published in Yemen because of the censorship issue as required by the Saudi Arabian government. However, there are signs of increasing openness in Saudi novelists, visual arts, theater and film artists, but it is restricted by the low freedom of expression as opposed to the west. Most of the poetry displays a cultural tradition of Saudi Arabia, for instance those written by Sandra Mackey.
Saudi Arabian national sport is football. In fact, there has been an improvement in the recent years whereby some of the Saudi Arabia players have currently played in Europe. However, some sports are still prohibited in Arabia and more so, women are not allowed to participate.
Every Culture, (2013). Saudi Arabia. http://www.everyculture.com/Sa-Th/Saudi-Arabia.html On June 28, 2013.
Saudibureau, (2013). The Saudi Arabian Culture. Retrieved From, http://www.saudibureau.org/english.html On June 28, 2013.
Kwintessential, (2013). Saudi Arabia Language, Culture, and Customs. Retrieved From, http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/saudi-arabia-country-profile.html On June 28, 2013.
Pinter smoothie Sensation and Gourmet Coffee Cyber Café are a shop that offers smoothie and coffee services. The feasibility study of Pinter Cyber Café was conducted in duration of seven weeks. A careful analysis of market, operational, economic viability, and the support required for the venture were developed. The accurate budget has been developed for the purpose of practicality and feasibility of this study. The purpose of Pinter Cyber Café includes providing tasty nutritious smoothie services to its customers and helps them use internet services for their needs. Customers will be able to enjoy a cup of smoothie and coffee while accessing the internet as well as hire internet knowledge and experience in a comfortable setting. The cyber café will serve people of all backgrounds and ages by providing them an innovative environment that other shops can’t afford.
Mission and Vision of Pinter
Pinter cyber café wants to become the best smoothie and coffee shop in the region. Our goal is to ensure that customers are satisfied with coffee and smoothies services at any time. The company aims at establishing an environment where people can spend their time and accomplish their activities without hurry. We want to create smoothing that will provide enjoyment services, provide innovate services, and education to the interested parties.
Purpose of Service/Product
Pinter cyber café will offer services such as introductory services to internet usage, scanning, printing, and internet application services. We shall also provide Usenet, FTP, www services, and email services. On the side of smoothie and coffee section, customers will enjoy innovative and unique environment for bakery items, sandwiches, smoothies, specialty beverages, teas, and coffees. Printer cyber café will be serving a perfect product and services to customers at a reasonable price at all time. The cyber café will develop an environment where students in college can socialize with experts and learn new things that assist them understand their surroundings, (Shen, et al. 2010).
There are a number of limitations that are associated with the product that the firm will provide to the customers. The shelf life of food items, perishable items, bakery goods, smoothie blends, and dairy products is some of the limitations. Other limitations are the installation of refrigerators, coolers, blenders, and coffee espresso machines. Providing latest computer technology services such as high speed internet, printing, and scanning services are some of the limitations of development of the firm. The firm may fail in providing powerful software applications and efficient internet connection services to its clients, (Islam & Jahan, 2012).
• Friendly and skilled staff; At Pinter cyber café, we have gone to a point of hiring and training individuals who have passion for sharing and teaching internet skills. The firm has eager and skilled staff.
• Upscale ambiance; those who visit the firm always have a feeling of the technology around them. The environment around Pinter cyber café is well developed in such a way that customer’s feel that they are in the right place. We use high quality cappuccino machines as well as glass pastry display that entices refreshments to the clients. Pinter cyber café has large round tables that create a suitable environment for friendly meetings and gathering.
• Pinter cyber café has the best vision of the market need. We understand what it takes to develop and build a suitable cyber café with required equipments and services. We understand the technology we know the clients, and we understand on how to develop and build an environment that will bring and serve the two together.
• We use state of the art equipments. Part of Pinter cyber café experience is developed by state of the art computer accessories that individuals see when they pay a visit to that place. We use high quality printers, fast machines for surfing, and clients enjoy beautiful flat screen displays.
• Adaptability on the quick changing technology; the firm is a place that offers services to individuals who want experience on internet and technology. Evidence shows that technology in the current world change now and then. Since product lifecycles due to technology are developed and measured in weeks, the firm has to establish a well laid strategy on keeping in a move of the technology.
• High cost of maintaining and keeping the state of the art; cost factor is another weakness towards the firm simply because Pinter cyber café has to ensure that it is in line with the technology of the internet. This is an expensive experience to the firm which should always be met. In order to survive and establish a well defined market, Pinter has to balance technology needs with other aspects of the shop in order to retain clients. It is clear that the shop will not sacrifice one aspect for the benefit of the other, (Cateora, et al., 2009).
• Growth of internet users on a daily basis; it is clear that the relevance of internet in the current society is almost the same with that of phone. The need for the services offered by Pinter cyber café will increase as the population of clients in use increases.
• The social bond is fostered by the current internet settings. Unlike any other communication media in the world, internet has been rated the best and fastest means that bring people together from across the world. The firm will utilize and work on this aspect where it will create an environment that allows local and small internet users to meet and share their skills in person. It is through establishing community programs, and chat areas Pinter cyber café will have created a growth strategy. All programs and chat areas developed by the firm will have sole thought of building and improving customer loyalty.
• The rapid decrease in the cost of internet usage; the cost of using the internet in the current times is dropping at a steady pace. According to the current status, it is clear that internet access in the near future will become affordable and cheap that individuals will have no need to pay for its access. Pinter cyber café is aware of the situation and has in it some strategies on monitoring pricing conditions all through.
• Development of local competitors.; In the current time, the company is enjoying the market and taking advantage of the local Pinter cyber café market services. Competitors are developing where the company needs to be prepared for these companies entry into the market. Programs that are used by the firm will have to be established and developed in a way that it suits needs of the clients and build customer loyalty. Our upscale ambiance and quality services won’t be easily established and duplicated.
Product and service position of the cyber café will be clear. This is the initial step into the market situation where the step is required to be fresh in order to establish consumer’s awareness of the product and service brand image.
The firm will combine the coffee services and internet services of competitors that will attract more clients into the firm. At the same time, the internet services offered by Pinter cyber café must be diversified. To enhance the added value if internet services, strategies have been established for this purpose and on how to improve services required to cater for the client’s needs.
Pinter cyber café will have the best price for its clients. The price will always be relatively suitable than competitors. We shall use very simple and effective approach in pricing services. This will enable customers use services and products of the firm as compared to those of competitors. Pinter cyber café will have a flat rate depending on the nature of services a customer gets from the firm. The pricing process of our services and products will always be fair and attractive as compared to the one of the competitors, (Kingston, 2011).
The firm will use different sales channels in advertising its products and services to the customers. We shall publicize services and products through the traditional direct approach of marketing. With the help of our qualified staff, we shall develop a corporate website in which clients will be able to make their inquiries and also online orders. Pinter cyber café will also be able to establish a promotion system in which law materials will be delivered. We shall be co-marketing our products and services with the help of other places such as offices that surrounds the café. Our sales will be unique and useful to the users in order to allow customers satisfy their needs at one place without looking services or products to another place. We shall always focus on the use and development of the latest technology in establishing our sales channels for the purpose of reaching a good number of clients, (Islam & Jahan, 2012).
To achieve brand awareness and stimulate the early order of consumers, the firm will provide free coffee services to some clients. Extra technology services such as binding and scanning will be offered for free to some clients at specified intervals for the purpose of advertising. A cumulative system of ordering approach will be used in the determination of promotion after determining the cost of services and products that will be offered to the client. The action focuses at consolidating the existing client awareness and then expands the impact and brand, which assist to quickly dominate and grab market share from the competition from the upcoming competitors. So as to stimulate the loyalty and spending frequency of customers, we shall in the promotion process, consider the accumulated awards for the online users, by looking at the consumption level and determine on the type or nature of gifts to be awarded to the customer, (Lei, 2009).
The nature of advertising in an organization plays a vital role in the development of the firm. Some firms fail simply because they use poor methods of advertising their products and services thus they are unable to reach the target population in the right manner. In this case, we shall use online advertising approach were we shall post our products and services in the firm’s website. Clients who use internet services from us will have an opportunity to see what the company has for them and at what prices. Our team of staff we always use and wear uniform when providing services so that customers can recognize them at any time. We shall always maintain a certain level of promotions in order to award customers who help us improve and develop our services. Our firm will collect contact information to our esteemed clients where we shall always update and inform them on the advancement of the company. The contact information will also be used to get and deliver offers to customers who are unable to come into our business, (Cateora, et al., 2009).
The current technology development and globalization of economies, there is a chance of a prolonged economic stability. Slight fluctuations of economic growth will not affect the business development because there are no indications of war. People are not scared about any shortage of food thus they will spend more on luxuries simply because they want to know more about technology and we shall have an opportunity to experience an increase in the population of users who seek services and products from us. The profit margin of the firm will not be affected simply because individuals are willing to spend more on advancing their skills and knowledge in the area of technology, (Islam & Jahan, 2012).
The possible economic stableness due to technology development means high level of customers. Individuals will want to explore more, and thus an increase in the economy will be experienced where people are going to spend more. This shows that the economic nature of the environment will favor in the development of the business. The need for improving technology skills will hike the prices of the technology services hence increase the revenue of the business at any time. Revenue of the firm this time will not depend on people with high incomes rather it will be as a result of all interested in improving their technology skills.
There are certain social issues that may impact the growth and development of the cyber café. Unsocial behavior and noise pollution from customers and the surrounding will pose some threats to the cyber café. Although such issues may arise, most people will focus on their own business thus the business will require no bouncers rather a strict management that monitors moves of the customers. Installation of CCTV cameras will be required in order to minimize the anti social behaviors of the customers.
Pinter cyber café will install the latest equipments in order to provide the required services to the customers. In order to establish a well and defined environment, the business will have to use the latest technology. This will allow the firm to operate effectively and manage to emerge the best among those in the same industry. The Pinter cyber café will have to determine the quality of equipments used in the development of the business so as not to interfere with the expected profit margins. It is the work of management to ensure that qualitative factors have been balanced out with quantitive factors at all times, (Kim, et al., 2012).
A cyber café license will be required before the business starts to operate in order to make it legal. Certain laws such as employment, burning, and internet use will be obtained in advance before the business starts its operations. Wages of the firm will be higher simply because the company will only hire employees who are over eighteen years.
The firm will have to evaluate on all issues that might be related with social issues. Noise and litter pollutions are dangerous to the development of the firm thus proper actions should be taken by the management in order to curb and minimize the impacts that may be developed by these issues. We shall use litter bin at areas where dirt may be littered.
Support Needed for the Venture
In order to establish this business, skilled, friendly, and knowledgeable staff is required in order to run all activities required in the development of the business. Without proper and trained staff, the business venture will not grow and develop, and that is why before starting its operations, the Pinter cyber café will have to establish and train employees. Another thing required is the state of the art equipments for the purpose of making the business unique. Evidence shows that technology is increasing rapidly thus in order to establish a well defined business, a state of the art equipment is required in order to attract, retain, and serve clients in the best way possible. Clean vision of the market required is another vital thing for the business because it will help the cyber café define its operations. It should know its customers and technology required so as to develop proper strategies that create an environment that bring customers and technology together. In other words, strengths are part of the support needed for the venture, (Cateora, et al., 2009).
A proper business plan, which is defined, is also part of the support needed. I believe that a focused business should have a business plan that helps the management work on the vision, goals, mission, and objectives of the organization. Planning for growth, developing operating and control systems, preparing to operate budgets, conducting an in-depth consumer and market research, and creating organizational and management structure all depends on the appropriative of the business plan that has been established. The cyber café will not require to license its service/products simply because it is in an open market where there are similar firms operating the same business. Capital will also be part of the support required for the venture simply because there is no way a business may start without capital. The selected management will oversee operations of the firm and establish proper strategies and committee to account for the expenses before the firm starts to realize its profits, (Kingston, 2011).
Cateora, P., Gilly, M., & Graham, J. (2009). International Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Islam, M., & Jahan, S. (2012). Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development. International Journal Of Marketing Studies, 4(5), 119-128. doi:10.5539/ijms.v4n5p119
Kim, H., Kim, J., & Chen, Q. (2012). A product network analysis for extending the market basket analysis. Expert Systems With Applications, 39(8), 7403-7410. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2012.01.066
Kingston, J. (2011). Conducting feasibility studies for knowledge based systems. Knowledge-Based Systems, 17(2-4), 157-164. doi:10.1016/j.knosys.2004.03.011
Lei FangRogerson, R. (2009). Product Market Regulation and Market Work: A Benchmark Analysis. Working Paper Series (Federal Reserve Bank Of Atlanta), (7), 1.
Shen, L., Tam, V. Y., Tam, L., & Ji, Y. (2010). Project feasibility study: the key to successful implementation of sustainable and socially responsible construction management practice. Journal Of Cleaner Production, 18(3), 254-259. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.10.014
Learning Theory Annotated Bibliography
Behavioral Learning Theory
1. The article reviews learning theories that relate to experiential contributions to depression. Authors of this article argue that the learning models have a connection to a phenomenon that helps explain why some symptoms of behavioral excess often develop in depression that in some instances marked by symptoms of behavioral deficit. According to the authors, the concept of schedule strain plays a major role simply because it unites these models. Results indicate that depression develops in a situation where schedule strain conditions exists and contains some reinforcers which are vital to humans. Evidence shows that conditions of schedule strain helps in development or rise to adjunctive behaviors, which are apparently, irrelevant which helps in the development of immediate reinforcement. The article indicates that, in some instances of depressed people, behavioral excess symptoms such as overeating and rumination may result to adjunctive functions.
2. The article suggests that in order to improve schools, educators have an obligation of developing the capacity to implement behavioral and instructional interventions that may differ from the current employed. Authors argue that the main problem of building tutors and educator’s capacity should not be focused on the determination of what should be implemented. The central focus in the improvement of schools should be looking on ways to assist educators sustain, adapt, implement, and identify effective practices and strategies. The exceptional professional learning (EPL) is one of the models that has been discussed to be an effective approach in the improvement of schools. The model according to the article provides a coordinated environment to sustain and elicit changed behavior and cognition among consultees.
Social Learning Theory
3. The authors have clearly analyzed vital social learning perspectives that relate to the designing and development of technology mediated in learning and teaching environments models. The explanations extend on how the models can be used in implementation and design of online learning at different situations. It is clear that cognitive psychological perspectives since 1970s have dominated the pedagogical models and frameworks for learning environments and designing technology mediated teaching approaches. Mostly in web based learning environments, it is clear that social learning perspectives have received enough attention as explained by the authors. Some of the implications that have been demonstrated that related to the social learning perspectives on web based learning environments which include (a) examining learner’s individual characteristics in WBLEs, (b) developing effective design principles for WBLEs, and (c) identifying strategies for promoting social interaction.
4. The article uses the concept of social, cognitive theory in the investigation of self reported homophobic aggressive behavior that exists in the current school environments. The author used a sample size of 863 participants from 49 classes. Students who participated in this study were enrolled in grades 9-13, in public high schools. Results from the article indicated that there was a relationship between self reported engagement and student observations of peer aggression in homophobic aggression toward schoolmates. The homophobic attitudes toward gay males were evaluated using the multilevel mediation model. It is clear that social, cognitive perspective contributes considerable insights into an environment that support homophobic aggression at school. Evidence shows that consistent with the said cognitive, social, and perspective factors accounted for the student’s homophobic aggression.
Adult Learning Theory
5. Authors of this article demonstrate on the modernist underpinnings of development theories and traditional, adult learning. The article examines on the elements present on those theories with a close evaluation of contemporary lenses. Evaluation of recent literature on the same environment, the article suggests that much learning has been taking place outside the formal educational institutions. The authors have drawn a relationship between the modern and traditional, adult learning environments and have considered the possible implications that relates to critical adult learning that results through and in contemporary media saturated culture, digital, and fragmented culture.
6. Results of this article, it is true that according to the literature of many practitioners and researchers, adults have different learning strategies as compared to the younger people in the educational system. This knowledge helps educators who engage in the teaching practices of adults in universities and college especially in science and language departments. Educators of biology have failed in teaching students simply because they do not understand on how to effectively pass skills they have to their students. By the use of experimental learning, transformational learning, theories of andragogy, and the integration of practices of self directed, teachers can manage to create an environment that helps students understand what they are taught.
1. Dygdon, J. A., & Dienes, K. A. (2013). BEHAVIORAL EXCESSES IN DEPRESSION: A LEARNING THEORY HYPOTHESIS. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 30(6), 598-605. doi:10.1002/da.22111
2. Truscott, S. D., Kreskey, D., Bolling, M., Psimas, L., Graybill, E., Albritton, K., & Schwartz, A. (2012). Creating consultee change: A theory-based approach to learning and behavioral change processes in school-based consultation. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 64(1), 63-82. doi:10.1037/a0027997
3. Hill, J. R., Song, L., & West, R. E. (2009). Social Learning Theory and Web-Based Learning Environments: A Review of Research and Discussion of Implications. American Journal of Distance Education, 23(2), 88-103. doi:10.1080/08923640902857713
4. Prati, G. (2012). A Social Cognitive Learning Theory of Homophobic Aggression among Adolescents. School Psychology Review, 41(4), 413-428.
5. Sandlin, J. A., Wright, R., & Clark, C. (2013). Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy. Adult Education Quarterly, 63(1), 3-23. doi:10.1177/0741713611415836
6. Bass, C. (2012). Learning Theories & Their Application to Science Instruction for Adults. American Biology Teacher (University Of California Press), 74(6), 387- 390. doi:10.1525/abt.2012.74.6.6
As the world navigates the first quarter of the 21st century, the world has experienced many achievements including the introduction of universal primary education (Wolfe, 2001). There are events that have particularly enhanced delivery and quality of higher education learning. The impact of the G.I. Bill (1944), introduction of standardized, non-referenced testing, and introduction of computers and distance learning are discussed.
1. The G. I. Bill of 1944
This bill was signed into in 1944 by President Franklin Roosevelt to guide the re-adjustment of the civilian life of the returning war veterans of World War II. The G.I. Bill of Rights brought wider access to higher education for the United States’ citizens. The bill was intended to reward the military people. The bill emphasized the concept of the significance of post secondary education. The consequent achievements following enactment of the law include the rise in enrollments in baccalaureate and graduate enrolments. The bill also resulted in the creation of the system of proprietary schools and expansion of the system of community college. The bill changed the standards for public schools, which were required to nurture students through the standard curriculum of reading, counting, writing, and science, and to prepare young students for entrance requirements for college, which depended on individual college rather that the individual young students. This was because the bill was designed to control the flow of World War II veterans into the United States.
The bill became the foundation for the development of educational reforms, and standards at all levels of learning. By 1964, the government through the veterans administration reported that the bill had resulted in 243,000 accountants, 180,000 doctors, nurses, and dentists, 360,000 school teachers, 150, scientists, 450,000 engineers, and 36,000 clergymen. The consequence of this was that the country was well rewarded. There was a development of an educated and hard-working middle class in numbers greater than the pre-war year. The taxes that were collected from the one-time citizen soldiers helped the government fund various public sector services and projects. The bill created hope and expectation of a college education for young men and women.
2. The Development of Standardized, Norm-Referenced Testing
The introduction of standardized, norm-referenced testing was motivated by the need for sufficient quality and quantity of teachers required in American schools (Wolfe, 2001). During the second part of the 20th century, it was realized that approximately 1,250 schools, institutions of higher learning, and education departments could not produce a sufficient number of qualified teachers required to educate approximately 15 million marginalized children in the United States. The problem is that, at the start of the 21st century, it is estimated that 2 million teachers will be required. The problem is compounded by the fact that the teachers that were prepared through the traditional system either do not take jobs or resign within three years after taking the job. The various state departments of education have adopted a flexible approach, in terms of deregulation of teacher certification. As a result of the change in testing system, quality teachers have been developed who are now active student mentors in class.
The process of licensing was changed from counting the number of courses that have been done by the prospective teacher to assessing the actual competence in teaching children (Billings & Halstead, 2009). The profile of the teaching fraternities in various schools has changed significantly from the traditional women-only teachers to a teaching group representative of the country, in terms of gender and racial divide.
3. The Advent of Computers and Distance Learning
Higher education has experienced massive changes since the introduction of personal computer and internet (Bates & Poole, 2003). In relation to higher learning, the introduction of computers has increased interest in distance learning. Universities and colleges that offer programs for distance learning now recognize the need to provide services and instructions to learners anywhere in the virtual environment. Mediums for telecommunications give the learner the same privileges and advantages. Technologies that facilitate data transfer of video and voice have been designed to enable students to access them at home. Distance learning has taken a wide variety of forms such as videoconferencing or delivery of mailed printed materials. In terms of the future prospect for higher education, introduction of computers has increased flexibility, motivation, cost-effective technology, and regular meetings among students and between teachers and students. Due to computers and the internet, the concepts of virtual universities and e-libraries have become the order of the modern-day education. The full potential of computers and e-learning will be realized in the 21st century.
Enactment of education bills, development of standards, and introduction of computers and distance learning has helped transform higher education. Through the innovations and events that occur in the education department the world has been transformed into a system that is flexible and convenient, in terms of the access of education by world citizens. While computers and distance learning increase connectivity for education purposes, introduction of standards and higher education bills serve to increase the quality of education, in the 21st century world.
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Billings, D.M., & Halstead, J.A. (2009), “Teaching in Nursing: A Guide for Faculty (3rd ed.)”, Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders
Wolfe, MP (2001), “Reflections on the most important educational developments of the 21st century: Kappa Delta Pi Laureates”, The Educational Forum, 65 (2): 146