Items filtered by date: March 2016
Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:46

Security and Privacy Plan

Security and Privacy Plan
Introduction
Hospitals rely on various category of information in order to operate effectively. These categories of information include; patient specific information, knowledge based information, comparative information and aggregate information (Glaser, Lee & Wager, 2009). Patient specific information is essential in assisting the organization to plan for patient care. However, failure to establish an effective information management plan can expose the patient to privacy and security breaches. Similarly, the absence of an effective information management plan can also result in loss of information during disasters. In the Gulf Coast case, patients’ files were washed away with the receding water after the town was struck by a hurricane. This paper presents a plan that has enabled the Gulf Coast hospital to manage patient information effectively in the event of the flood disaster.


Patient Information Management Plan
Healthcare organizations provide highly sensitive services. Thus, the organization must maintain the highest degree of information system availability (Glaser, Lee & Wager, 2009). This is because the availability of patient information has a large impact on the process of care delivery. Patients’ health is usually at risk when there is lack of access to healthcare information in the event of a disaster. Loss of data in the event of disasters can also have economic implications on the hospital. These implications include loss of revenue due to inability to provide care during the emergency situation, loss of credibility and trust resulting in the long term loss of patients and penalties for non-compliance with government regulations. The hospital will also incur costs in the process of recovering and repairing lost data, as well as, in meeting legal costs. Statistics reveal that 43% of organizations that loss their information during disaster never reopen while close to 29% of the organizations that reopen close shop within two years.

HIPAA is a set of federal regulations that governs the management of patient information in the country (Lucchesi, 2011). HIPPA covered entities such as hospitals are expected to have a contingency plan to ensure that there is continued access of data in the event of a disaster. HIPPA disaster recovery requirements compel organizations to have a back-up plan, as well as, disaster recovery and emergency mode plan. In the Gulf Coast, patient files have been washed away by floods. The first step in the data management plan is to create a crisis communication team.

1. Crisis Communication Team

Disasters such as floods disrupt the normal operations of organizations. The hospital has to find alternative ways of running its operations. This can create confusion on the part of patients, hospital personnel and other stakeholders. Patients and stakeholders will not know what is happening and may become angry leading negative reactions (Kirvan, 2011). The communication team will establish ways of reaching patients and other stakeholders. The communication team will also convey the response plan put in place, by the hospital, to the stakeholders. For instance, they can direct the patients on what to do in case they needed to receive care. The second step in the management of the Gulf Coast situation is to activate the emergency mode operation plan.

2. Emergency Mode Operation Plan

The emergency operation plan describes how the hospital could continue to protect patient information and deliver services during an emergency situation (Lucchesi, 2011). Disaster destabilizes the normal operations of the organization. The hospital has to initiate an emergency operation plan in order to restore the hospital operations to minimally acceptable standards. The emergency mode operation plan is initiated after an assessment is conducted. The aim of the assessment is to evaluate the extent of the damage caused by the flood. The hospital has to evaluate the amount of information that is lost and how the loss will affect the operation of the organization. This exercise is known as the Business Impact Analysis (BIA).

BIA also entails identifying minimal resources that will be required to keep the hospital activities running (Lucchesi, 2011). For instance, if the flood had damaged the hardware used to store and retrieve information, the hospital will have to acquire new hardware so as to restore the operations of the hospital. The hospital management determines key patient care department. These departments are given priority during the emergency plan. The hospital management also determines critical information that is required in the hospital. This may include patient health records. The emergency plan also focuses on retrieving this information. The management also determines the data that each department can do without. This evaluation process enables the management to identify priority areas and focus on these areas.
The emergency operation plan is also determined by business recovery objectives and assumptions of the organization (Lucchesi, 2011).
This objectives and assumptions were developed during the development of the plan. They stipulate the organization priorities in the recovery of data in emergency situations. For instance, the recovery objective of the hospital may be to enable the hospital to provide emergency health services. Thus, the emergency mode operation plan will focus on retrieving data that support the operations of the hospital’s emergency department. The emergency plan also considers the operational, financial and reputational impact of the loss. For instance, if the hospital specializes in heart treatment, this cardiology department will form the focus of the recovery process as losses that affect this department will have high consequences on the organization.

3. Disaster Recovery Plan

The data recovery plan identifies processes and procedures that will ensure that patient information is restored in the event of loss (Kirvan, 2011). The flood that affected the hospital led to loss of patient files. The emergency mode operation plan has just restored the hospital’s essential operations. Recovery of all health record is essential in ensuring that the hospital reverts to its normal levels of operation. The disaster recovery plan assists the organization to recover all the data lost during the emergency situation.

The data recovery plan documents all the process and procedures required to restore the hospital operations to normal levels (Lucchesi, 2011). This includes identifying alternative site of operation and team participation. The plan will indicate hospital employees that will be in charge of the recovery process and their role in this process. The disaster recovery plan also stipulates the restoration sequence. The restoration sequence will also be affected by the recovery objectives and assumptions of the organization. The sequence will also be determined by financials and other considerations.

Risk Assessment

The hospital had put in place various measures for protecting patient information from such disasters. One of these measures is risk assessment (Lucchesi, 2011). Risk assessment is a proactive process of managing patient information. This approach entails assessing the hospital environment in order to identify potential threats to the security of patient information. This process helps the organization to identify both external and internal threats to health care information.
Risk assessment also entails the process of quantifying risk. The assessment focuses of identifying the magnitude of the risk, as well as, the probability of the risk occurring. The process of quantifying risk enables the organization to identify risks that the organization needs to assign the highest priority. At any given time, the organization is faced by numerous risks. Resource constraints make it impossible for the organization to plan for all the risks. The process of quantifying risks enable the organization to identify the risk that it should focus on and risk that can be ignored. The risk assessment process enables the organization to come up with plans for preventing or mitigating the identified risks.


Data Backup Plan

Another mechanism that enabled the hospital to deal with the emergency situation is the data backup plan (Ranajee, 2012). Data backup plan entails the creation of systems that allow the hospital to restore all the patients’ health information systems. The data backup plan comprised of multiple mechanisms for ensuring that patient information is recovered. The first mechanism entails writing information in removable media such as CD, DVDs and tapes and placing them in alternative locations. Multiple versions of hospital data were created and stored both onsite and offsite. The flood destroyed the information that was stored onsite. However, the information that was stored offsite is still intact and will be used in the emergency operation and recovery process.

The hospital had also implemented the synchronous data mirroring technology (Ranajee, 2012). This technology enables the hospital to copy data to another location at the same time as input is being made. The technology has enhanced the security of patient information as it ensures that patient information is backed up on a continuous basis. The CDs and DVDs were only written at regular period and thus could result in loss of information that was acquired between the writing sessions. The mirroring technology has also automated the data recovery process thus minimizing human error and making the recovery process fast.

The synchronous mirroring technology also enabled the hospital to create virtualized environments for storing and retrieving information (Ranajee, 2012). Virtual environments are easier to manage than physical environments. This is because information is stored in virtual locations rather than physical locations. This makes the loss of data impossible in the event of natural disaster. The virtualized environment also makes the process of recovering the information during disasters easy.

Personnel Training

HIPPA requires hospitals to train all hospital employees on the security and protection of patient health information (Kirvan, 2011). Disaster recovery plans have no use in an organization if they are not implemented effectively. These plans are implemented by employees thus making the process of personnel training vital in the management of health information. The hospital had put in place disaster recovery training and awareness programs. These programs’ target is to prepare employees to respond to emergency situations as stipulated in the plan. The training and awareness programs are design to equip the employees with skills that will enable them to implement their roles within the recovery process. The programs are implemented on a continual manner so as to ensure that employees are updated about modifications in the plan.

The data management plan also focuses on protecting the security of patient information during emergency situations (Ranajee, 2012). The plan has established a multilayered physical security system that includes; video monitoring, biometric technology, cages and private suites. Strict access control protocols have also been implemented to protect patient information. Only authorized persons can gain access to the data center.

Similarly, the disaster management plan needs to be subjected to regular testing and modification (Kirvan, 2010). The disaster management plan can only become efficient through continual improvement. The hospital management focuses on ensuring that existing security and disaster recovery systems are tested so as to identify points of weakness. Modifications are made so as to address the identified weakness leading to the development of an efficient data management plan.

Conclusion

Information is a vital element in the operations of healthcare organizations. Hospitals need patient information to design effective care. Hospitals also require patient and other information to inform their strategic and operational decisions. Disasters pose a significant risk to the security of healthcare information. Disasters can cut of existing infrastructure and wash away existing health records. In the Gulf Coast case, all patient files were washed away by floods. Hospitals need an effective emergency and disaster recovery plan in order to manage patient and other information during such incidents.
The Gulf Coast Hospital data management plan comprised of a crisis communication plan, emergency mode operation plan and data recovery plan. The crisis communication plan enables the hospital to inform patients and other stakeholders about the plans that hospital will implement in dealing with the situation. The emergency mode operation plans enable the hospital to restore essential operations by recovering vital information. The recovery plan enables the hospital to restore the hospital to normal operations by recovering the entire hospital data. The management plan was enabled by established processes such as risks assessment, data backup plan and employee training.


References
Glaser J. Lee F. & Wager K. (2009). Healthcare Information System. A practical Approach to Health Care Management. USA. John Wiley & Sons
Kirvan P. (2010). Data Center Recovery Plan Template and Guide. June 20, 2013. http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/Data-center-disaster-recovery-plan-template-and-guide
Kirvan P. (2011). Disaster Recovery Awareness and Testing require Training, Strategic Plans. June 20, 2013. http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Disaster-recovery-awareness-and-testing-require-training-strategic-plans
Lucchesi R. (2011). Meeting HIPAA Disaster Recovery Requirements Tough but Possible. June 20, 2013. http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/tip/Meeting-HIPAA-disaster-recovery-requirements-tough-but-possible
Ranajee N. (2012). Best Practices in Healthcare Disaster Recovery Planning. June 20, 2012. http://www.healthmgttech.com/articles/201205/best-practices-in-healthcare-disaster-recovery-planning.php

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:43

Action Research

 

Appropriateness of Action Research

Action research is a vital professional development and enhances classroom practice. Action research assists students to gain thinking and learning skills, boosts self esteem, and attitudes towards the support of long term learning. The action research assists in evidence based learning through the provision of explicit documentation of educational possibilities. Action research aims to change processes, document context of a resultant theory and learning in the development of pedagogies in my faculty. Teachers use action research to reach an understanding of a shared teaching theory through research practice (Brown, 2002).


Dick (2006) shows the trends and themes of action research literature. He shows that the type of learning and research in Assessment and general practice helps to ensure that intervention in informed by considering the theoretical principles. Therefore, the action research is appropriate for my filed for it has its epistemological strengths (Dick, 2006). Action research is not concerned with the provision of empirical generalizable results or hypothesis testing. It is a systematic reflection on learning and teaching.

Action research is used to meet educational responsibilities that aim to improve classroom practices. Nolen and Putten (2007) show that Action research influences teachers in their instructional practices, and this leads to positive thinking of teaching practices. Action research contributes to reflective practices, teaching practices, improving teacher’s knowledge and the overall role of a teacher. Action research gives teachers a methodical structure for analyzing and implementing the learning and teaching process (Nolen & Putten 2007, p 38 -50).

Action research is also applicable whenever there is a need for practical and relevant knowledge in the field of social sciences. Action research acts as a bridge between the daily applications and academic research (Nolen & Putten 2007, p 38 -50). It is a practical method which educators can use to reflect their own teaching practices.

Action research in education helps to boost the collective interests of education administrators, parents and teachers. Through action research, they gain the confidence that they connect academic research to their daily lives. This is because action research helps in transforming knowledge into a meaningful aspect (Ferrance, 2000).

Teaching has its downside of being in isolation. However, through action research, teachers can work as teams or pairs in describing their teaching strategies and styles and also share thoughts. Working in teams helps educators to examine the range of learning activities, instructional strategies and curricular materials that are appropriate for their classrooms.

Action research is vital in bringing about school change. Action research assist in address the district and school concerns as a whole and not the individual teachers concerns. This process leads to the creation of new patterns of sharing, communication and collegiality. This way, teachers form collaboration based on effective communication in bringing about the needed change. Through action research, teachers can closely examine their areas of interest in viewing leaning in a new way of thinking so to generate alternative ways of instructions.


Finally, Donato (2003) indicates that action research assist teachers to undertake leadership roles within their own contexts of teaching. The teacher researchers undertake action research so as to find information on how schools operate, how they can each and the learning of students. These contexts are relevant in the education field for action research plays a vital role in the development of reflective practice, gaining insight and positive change to the school environment (Donato, 2003).


Reference
Brown, B (2002) Improving teaching practices through action. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Dick, B. (2006) Action research literature 2004-2006 Action Research, 4 (4), 439-458
Donato, R (2003). Action research. ERIC Digest
Ferrance, E. (2000). Action research. Brown University.
Nolen, A & Vander Putten, J (2007). Action research in education. Educational Researcher, 36 (7), 401-407.

Published in Education
Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:42

Communication

In his video, Thomas Goetz addresses how healthcare professional can exploit some underutilized resources (people). He states that people have failed to utilize information dispensed to them. This has posed a major challenge in management of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and obesity which require behavior change. According to Thomas Goetz, behavior change is a long standing problem in healthcare. Despite doctors and other healthcare professionals depending on behavior change, there is little that is being done to change the worrying state of the situation. Doctors should strive to give information that educate, inform and help patients make better decisions and choices in life.


Thomas Goetz sites dentistry as one of the medicine fields that have effectively used behavior change to improve preventive health. He gives an example of Connecticut study where researchers studied a cohort the of population. In the research, efficacy rather than fear was demonstrated as the main force behind behavior change. The sense of efficacy as the driving force behind behavior change was also demonstrated by Bandura, who concluded that if a person believes they have the potential to change their behavior, and then they are more likely to adopt the positive behavior.


Therefore, in healthcare, the attitude and conviction of the patient is a strong force behind betting better. However, healthcare practitioners are not able to manipulate this concept among patients. Thomas Goetz notes that instead of using fear to pass behavior change information, healthcare practitioners should use personalized information. It is crucial for healthcare providers to give client specific information pertaining the potential outcome of their condition. They should connect personalized data with the lives of the patient.


Information should always be connected with emotions and actions. Despite the importance of personalized data in healthcare, many institutions have challenges in gathering and maintaining such information. There is lack of a complete feedback system between action and information given. Healthcare practitioners do not use the information to achieve the desired change. Thomas Goetz contrast how commercial adverts are craftily made compared to behavior change adverts, which are poorly done. Lack of good faith in the development and dissemination of health information is a major challenge. He gives a classical example of Scwatz and Woloshin, who used pharmaceutical advert to reach out the audience.


The advert gave particular information that relates to the audience. The audience is given information on the effectiveness of the drug, and then given choices. To describe how packaging of information is crucial, Thomas Goetz gives another example of lab test results. Lab report results are presented in a way that makes them unclear, not only for patients, but also to doctors. However, a proper presentation of the same lab report can be used to change behaviors among client. Thomas Goetz explains how itemization of the report can be effective in passing the relevant information. Healthcare providers can also use other strategies to simply and consequently personalized information. Through simplified versions of blood and CRP tests, Thomas Goetz demonstrates how healthcare providers can improve how they communicate with patients, and how they can use the information to influence decisions and choices made patients.


Personalization of risks while conducting PSA test is another effective way information can be used to communicate effective with patients. Identifying targets of any information is crucial in deciding how it will be packaged and passed. In conclusion, Thomas Goetz argues practitioners and patients to develop feedback report, which helps breaking down of information into understandable units that will help in decision making.


Healthcare is undergoing a massive transformation in terms of technologies, procedures, treatments and medications. Healthcare providers are expected to adopted these new technologies and procedures in their daily activities (Barbara, 2002). Use of technology in healthcare has increased efficiency in management of patient information. Electronic health records has transformed management of health records and consequently saved a lot of time. Physician have been given able time with patient because they do not have to saunter from one part of the hospital to other searching for a client’s information.


However, the revolutionary concept of technology in healthcare is not with challenge. Many healthcare institutions are adopting new technology to gain a competitive edge. Purchase and installation of some of these electronic devices is costing healthcare facilities a lot of money. Technology use is also being hampered by social factors such as the age of the physicians. With the use of EHR, maintenance of patient privacy has become a huge challenge.


Conclusion
Healthcare facilities and practitioners depend heavily on effective communication to achieve behavior change or even help patient decide. However, most health information is being communicated in unorganized, complex and not user friendly manner. There is a need to change the way information is packaged in healthcare setup. Physician should use language that is easy to understand, personalize information, offer specific and precise information that will help the patient understand the alternatives they have so as they can make informed decisions.


References
Thomas Goetz: It's time to redesign medical data. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/thomas_goetz_it_s_time_to_redesign_medical_data.html
Barbara L. M. (2002). Medical Informatics for Better and Safer Health Care. Retrieved http://www.ahrq.gov/data/informatics/informatria.htm on 17/6/2013

Published in Nursing
Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:39

Communication

In his video, Thomas Goetz addresses how healthcare professional can exploit some underutilized resources (people). He states that people have failed to utilize information dispensed to them. This has posed a major challenge in management of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and obesity which require behavior change. According to Thomas Goetz, behavior change is a long standing problem in healthcare. Despite doctors and other healthcare professionals depending on behavior change, there is little that is being done to change the worrying state of the situation. Doctors should strive to give information that educate, inform and help patients make better decisions and choices in life.


Thomas Goetz sites dentistry as one of the medicine fields that have effectively used behavior change to improve preventive health. He gives an example of Connecticut study where researchers studied a cohort the of population. In the research, efficacy rather than fear was demonstrated as the main force behind behavior change. The sense of efficacy as the driving force behind behavior change was also demonstrated by Bandura, who concluded that if a person believes they have the potential to change their behavior, and then they are more likely to adopt the positive behavior.
Therefore, in healthcare, the attitude and conviction of the patient is a strong force behind betting better. However, healthcare practitioners are not able to manipulate this concept among patients. Thomas Goetz notes that instead of using fear to pass behavior change information, healthcare practitioners should use personalized information. It is crucial for healthcare providers to give client specific information pertaining the potential outcome of their condition. They should connect personalized data with the lives of the patient.
Information should always be connected with emotions and actions. Despite the importance of personalized data in healthcare, many institutions have challenges in gathering and maintaining such information. There is lack of a complete feedback system between action and information given. Healthcare practitioners do not use the information to achieve the desired change. Thomas Goetz contrast how commercial adverts are craftily made compared to behavior change adverts, which are poorly done. Lack of good faith in the development and dissemination of health information is a major challenge. He gives a classical example of Scwatz and Woloshin, who used pharmaceutical advert to reach out the audience.
The advert gave particular information that relates to the audience. The audience is given information on the effectiveness of the drug, and then given choices. To describe how packaging of information is crucial, Thomas Goetz gives another example of lab test results. Lab report results are presented in a way that makes them unclear, not only for patients, but also to doctors. However, a proper presentation of the same lab report can be used to change behaviors among client. Thomas Goetz explains how itemization of the report can be effective in passing the relevant information. Healthcare providers can also use other strategies to simply and consequently personalized information. Through simplified versions of blood and CRP tests, Thomas Goetz demonstrates how healthcare providers can improve how they communicate with patients, and how they can use the information to influence decisions and choices made patients.
Personalization of risks while conducting PSA test is another effective way information can be used to communicate effective with patients. Identifying targets of any information is crucial in deciding how it will be packaged and passed. In conclusion, Thomas Goetz argues practitioners and patients to develop feedback report, which helps breaking down of information into understandable units that will help in decision making.

Healthcare is undergoing a massive transformation in terms of technologies, procedures, treatments and medications. Healthcare providers are expected to adopted these new technologies and procedures in their daily activities (Barbara, 2002). Use of technology in healthcare has increased efficiency in management of patient information. Electronic health records has transformed management of health records and consequently saved a lot of time. Physician have been given able time with patient because they do not have to saunter from one part of the hospital to other searching for a client’s information.


However, the revolutionary concept of technology in healthcare is not with challenge. Many healthcare institutions are adopting new technology to gain a competitive edge. Purchase and installation of some of these electronic devices is costing healthcare facilities a lot of money. Technology use is also being hampered by social factors such as the age of the physicians. With the use of EHR, maintenance of patient privacy has become a huge challenge.


Conclusion

Healthcare facilities and practitioners depend heavily on effective communication to achieve behavior change or even help patient decide. However, most health information is being communicated in unorganized, complex and not user friendly manner. There is a need to change the way information is packaged in healthcare setup. Physician should use language that is easy to understand, personalize information, offer specific and precise information that will help the patient understand the alternatives they have so as they can make informed decisions.

References

Thomas Goetz: It's time to redesign medical data. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/thomas_goetz_it_s_time_to_redesign_medical_data.html
Barbara L. M. (2002). Medical Informatics for Better and Safer Health Care. Retrieved http://www.ahrq.gov/data/informatics/informatria.htm on 17/6/2013

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:37

Language Disorders

Language Disorders
Language disorders are medical conditions that are characterized by difficulties in processing linguistic information. Language disorders can be divided into two broad categories; receptive and expressive disorders (Logsdon, 2010). Receptive disorders are signified by difficulties in understanding communicated information. Expressive disorder is characterized by difficulties in conveying information to other people. In most cases, language disorders are caused by unknown factors. Some of the known factors that can lead to the development of language disorders include; mental retardation, brain injury, neurological disorders, hearing loss and drug abuse.


Dennis (2010) has addressed some of the factors that may be responsible for development of language disorder. Dennis (2010) noted that language can be distorted by acquired and congenital conditions. Congenital conditions are conditions that develop before the child is born. Many children are born with defects in the brain mechanism that is responsible for language. One of these conditions is spina bifida meningomyelicele. This is a condition that is associated with structural abnormalities in the formation of the brain and spine. Inborn error of metabolism is another condition that can disrupt language mechanism. Errors in metabolic processes can result in distortion in the processing of language. Unilateral congenital defects can also affect language processing.

Language disorders may also be caused by acquired conditions (Dennis, 2010). One such condition is the seizure disorder. Clinical seizures can affect the language processing mechanism of the brain leading to language disorders. Vascular conditions can also cause language disorders. Vascular conditions that upset the delivery of blood to the brain can cause language disorder (Dennis, 2010). This happens when the disruption in blood supply affect the brain part that is responsible for language processing. Traumatic brain injuries, brain tumors, cancer treatment, infections and hypoxic disorders are other acquired conditions that can cause language disorders.


References

Dennis M. (2010). Language Disorders in Children with Central Nervous System Injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 32 (4): 417- 432
Logsdon A. (2010). Definition of Expressive Language Disorder. June 19, 2013. http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/learningdisabilitybasics/p/exprslangdisrdr.htm

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:34

Medicine’s Future

Abstract
The future of the health care is affected by the exponentially growing technology. Improved healthcare, ability to perform sophisticated procedures together with reduced health care costs come as a result of advanced technology. Exponential technology will connect patients and the physicians through the internet. IPhone technology is one of the exponential technology areas that will lead to more effective diagnosis as it finds a lot of applications in modern medicine.


Diagnostic procedures, such as CT scans, PET scans and the MRI scans will also improve to more sophisticated forms that ensure high resolution. Robotic technology is also one of the areas that will enhance advance in surgical procedures, as well as empowering physically disabled individuals. Stem cell technology will expand it he future to ensure that pathological conditions such as cancers are effectively managed. Medicine’s future will, therefore, be achieved through exponential technology.

The exponentially growing technology is affecting our future of health and wellness in many perspectives including low cost gene analysis to the ability to perform powerful bio informatics to the connection of the internet and the social networks. Therefore, understanding these exponential technologies is paramount. Off course we often think linearly, but if we start thinking exponentially, we can perceive the effects on our surrounding technologies most of, which can be leveraged so as to impact the future of our own health and health care, and also to address other major challenges that affect the health care today, the increasing costs to the aging population included, inadequate use of information in the current world, the fragment of care, and the difficulty in adoption of innovation. One of important things that can be done is moving the curve to the left. Perhaps, most of our money is spent on the last 20 percent of life.
If this could be spent in incentivizing positions in the health care system and on our own self in an effort orient the curve to the left and eventually improve our health and also leverage the technology. An excellent example of exponential technology, which is in our pockets, is the iPhone4. This technology is dramatically improving, and the iPhone 8 can imaginary do a lot of things such as diagnostics, for example, measuring an individual’s blood pressure and sending the result to the respective physician. The iPhone has different types of applications, and it can be possibly modified to include diagnostic applications.
The speed of computers is improving, and this means that there is more ability to do more things with them; in fact, it is surpassing the ability of the human mind in many cases. Computational speed has found most application in imaging since it presents the ability to perform body imaging in real time and with high resolution. Therefore, multiple technologies at PET and CT scans and molecular diagnostics are being layered in order to perform things at different levels.
In fact, MRI; which is done today, has the highest resolution, therefore, enhancing fine details of the body tissues. Advances, therefore, are geared towards reengineering the existing MRI technology to generate real time fMRI. The fMRI technology will monitor the condition of a brain in real time and present information that will lead to effective management of the underlying medical condition for example, effective psychoactive drugs. The scanners for this new technology will be smaller, less expensive, and portable than the existing form.

The scan in the next couple of years will also have increased speed and resolution. Paradigm shift, therefore, exist in healthcare whereby moving is towards the biomedicine, information technology, wireless technology, mobile, and to the digital medicine, and even a stethoscope is now digital. There is also an advance in medical records whereby electronic medical records now exist. Merging medical data is also another emerging idea so that physicians and patients can access their data whenever they are through applications in devices such as iPad technology.
In fact, this application has been approved to allow physicians and radiologists to access the patient’s data. This is a typical Skype-type visit whereby the patient does not have to physically visit the doctor, but to present the information online, and get the physician make a diagnosis on the other and finally give feedback to the patient. Steps are also taken to generate devices that will measure an individual’s steps by caloric out take, watches that will measure heartbeats, and even diagnostic mirrors.
Robotic technology is also expected to go further to a step that it will perform scar-less surgery, and robotic wheelchairs innovated to give super ability to the disabled. Introduction of ipills will also help surgeon diagnose gastrointestinal disorders through remote monitoring. Stem cells are also expected to be stored and regenerated in the future through cell culture so as to form identical body tissues that can be used to replace the pathological parts, therefore, effective in the management pathological disorders such as cancers.


Reference
TED, (2011). Medicine’s Future, Kraft Daniel: Author. Retrieved From, http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/daniel_kraft_medicine_s_future.html On June 11, 2013.
Examiner, (2013). How Technology has Transformed Medicine. Retrieved From, http://www.examiner.com/article/how-technology-has-transformed-medicine On June 2013.
NCBI, (2012). Science and Technology for Disease Control. Retrieved From, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11740/ On June 11, 2013.

Published in Nursing
Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:31

Relevance of Logic Reasoning

 

It’s with no doubt that human decision making involves expression, cognition, perception, and mind sensory mechanism among others. Humans will often remember, think, feel the reason in an adaptive way, and perceive things in different ways. In the everyday life activities, we encounter situations and problems that call for sound decisions. In order to arrive at such sound decisions, we are encouraged to apply the concept of reasoning and logic that assists in realizing desired results.


This is an indication why reasoning and logic concepts are relevant in human life. Apart from making decisions, evidence shows that there are other reasons why we need reasoning and logic in our lives. The areas where we require logic includes moral, philosophical, and theoretical decision making. Studies show that logic is based on the concepts of deduction which forms the strategies of exact inference. The study of correct reasoning and logic applies the use of reasoning and language, (Hookway, 2006).

Logic is useful in human life because it enables people use sound concepts when carrying out their everyday activities. Based on the tested evidence, the most obvious reason why logic is relevant to everyday life is due to the fact that it helps to improve arguments that one uses in the society. You should be keen when addressing people because logically unsound arguments or reasoning affects how people take or listen what you have. Logic assists us in developing logically sound arguments that are likely to convince the situation we are addressing because people we see that we have valid points. This will help you get supporters who agree with you hence you get an opportunity to pass information to the target audience. Even if the audience you are addressing have no clue on the use of logic, they will understand something is wrong if your arguments are unsound hence disagree with what points you put across, (Zinn & Manfredo, 2011).

Logic is relevant in our daily lives simply because it helps us improve the ability to understand and get things from others. Someone who has no idea about logic and reasoning have a high chance of being cheated or perceive wrong information. Logic helps us evaluate the ideas and arguments put across by others and as a result, decide on whether the other person has sound ideas.
If the points presented, are not valid and logic we are able to decide on what to do next despite the convincing power of that person. If we are able to know how sound arguments are developed and how they are presented, helps us find if we are in a sound argument thus operate in a sound decision setting. Logic and reasoning help us find out how some audience are won out by arguments that are neither sound nor relevant based on the setting of their situations, (Moore, et al., 1995).


Although difficult and challenging, it is not easy to realize arguments that are sound in our environment. This is due to the fact that there are arguments around us that are dependent based on acceptance and attention among other things. In making arguments for other people, we use logic and reasoning in crafting ideas that will be accepted. It is also the concept of reasoning and logic audience use in evaluating what is presented before they come to a conclusion that they believe has a weight. Apart from demonstrating that an argument is logic and fit in the conversation, one is supposed have the acceptance concept and have grounds on why the acceptance of the idea plus has the ability to defend his or her stand. It is through reasoning and logic we are able to reject some arguments presented to us simply because we evaluate and lack their credibility. With the help of logic concept we manage to challenge those who present arguments that have no sound basis, (Knorpp, 1997).

Reasons for Taking Course in Logic

Taking a course in logic helps you in improving your reasoning skills and how you evaluate arguments in your everyday activities. Logic courses are relevant in someone’s life simply because they give the opportunity to have sound decision making grounds that do not allow someone get trapped by cheap arguments that are logically unsound. Taking logic courses will help teach you on how to develop sound arguments. This is arrived at because you get to learn basic rules required in developing logic arguments. It helps one learn things new and that are already known that helps in crafting what is required in developing arguments that are sound and relevant. Learning a course in logic helps you in developing clear and sound arguments that people understand what you are talking about and presenting, (Dickinson, 2008).

If you want to learn about fallacies that are formal and informal in order to establish a foundation of evaluating arguments, taking a logic course will help. Learning logic helps you understand fallacies and how to avoid them. It helps improve your ability of avoiding fallacies when making sound decisions and also making arguments that are useful to the target group. The fewer fallacies you make and encounter when developing decisions that better for your ideas because they will have a solid foundation and they will be accepted by your people, (Moore, et al., 1995).

We often rely on appeals to emotion for the sake of persuading people rather than providing argument. This is a problematic simply because we do not value the concept of logic and reasoning. It is a weakness that people have developed in their everyday activities that instead of providing arguments that are sound they rely on appeals. People who are to be persuaded, on the other hand have a weakness simply because they do not want arguments rather they want people who use the approach of appeals.
The problem behind this is that we forget that arguments helps and ensure that sound decisions are constructed. It prevents in the use of sound ideas thus end up convincing people on things that are not real. When developing ideas and arguments for certain situations we should be able to see the difference between emotional and logical appealing. We should not rely on emotions that arose from people for the purpose of convincing rather we should focus on the concept according to reason, evidence, and conclusions that develop from the arguments, (Hookway, 2006).


Reference:
Dickinson, S (2008). Understanding the emotional and coping responses of adolescent. International Journal Of Advertising, 27(2), 251-278
Hookway, C. (2006). Reasons for Belief, Reasoning, Virtues. Philosophical Studies, 130(1), 47-70. doi:10.1007/s11098-005-3233-1
Knorpp, W. (1997). The relevance of logic to reasoning and belief revision: Harman on 'Change in View.'. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 78(1), 78
Moore, D. J., Harris, W. D., & Chen, H. C. (1995). An Individual Difference Response to Advertising Appeals. Journal Of Consumer Research, 22(2), 154-164
Zinn, H. C., & Manfredo, M. J. (2011). An Experimental Test of Rational and Emotional Appeals. Leisure Sciences, 22(3), 183-194. doi:10.1080/01490409950121852

Published in Sociology
Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:29

False Memory

False Memory
False memory is a phenomenon that is characterized by the recollection of facts that are not accurate among individuals. Schacter (2012) is one of the studies the researchers that have explored this phenomenon of false memory. Schacter (2012) suggests that false memory is usually as a result of the constructive nature of the human memory. The human memory does not reproduce the exact information that was acquired. The memory usually reconstructs this information using a person’s existing knowledge, paradigm and values. Schacter (2012) argues that, at times, this construction process results in the distortion of information leading to the development of false memory.


The human memory has adaptive capabilities that enable it to function effectively. The adaptive capability enables the memory to align new information with existing paradigms and knowledge. Schacter (2012) studies suggest that the distortion of information, which characterizes false memory, is a function of the memory’s adaptive processes. This article provides evidence that the memory’s people memories can distort information while attempting to adapt to existing and new information including post event miss-information. The article also suggests that imagined memory about events can also lead to the development of distorted memory about the events. It is easy for persons to integrate imagined information while recollecting facts about an event.

Schacter (2012) also suggest that false memory can be distinguished from true memory through functional neuroimaging techniques. False memory usually poses a great challenge in fields such as law while eye witness evidence plays a significant role. Schacter (2012) was interested in finding a strategy that can be used to differentiate false memory from true memory. The article notes that imagined memories and actual memories are processed by separate sub-networks within the memory’s core network. Thus, these memories can be distinguished by examining these sub-networks using imaging techniques.


Reference
Schacter D. (2012). Constructive Memory: Past and Future. Dialogues Clinical Neuroscience. 14 (1): 7- 18

Published in Sociology
Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:22

Application of Exploratory Research

Application of Exploratory Research
6. Systematic observation
Systematic observation is the process of setting up a study so that bias can be eliminated. The rules decision rules are set up a head of the time of research in order to reduce interference. The observational research is constructed in a manner that if the same study is conducted with someone else under the same circumstances, the same result can be achieved. Therefore, in order to achieve this, the procedure rules that are used in the research must be clearly defined. The context of behavior being studied is essentially put into consideration by accurately harmonizing the subjects that are being studied. For example, if a researcher is testing the hypothesis that males are more to engage in a risky behavior than females, for instance, abusing drugs, it may turn out that there are there are actually more males abusing drugs than females.


However, this may be due to more males that are present in the study than the number of females. Therefore, to obtain an accurate picture, a researcher needs to establish the total number of females and that of males in the study. Eventually, the number the researcher will know the total the participants in the study. Also, specific individuals who take part in the risk must be noted by the researcher this is because a given incident may be reported among a given group of participants, and yet this is due to one or two individuals who repeatedly display the behavior. Therefore, one must always record the individuals’ participants in the study, in addition to counting the number, of times that the group of participants displays a given behavior under study. Quantitative research quantifies a problem by generating numerical data that are transformable into useable statistics. Therefore, data from systematic observation is primarily quantitative because it is obtained through systematic observation of the behaviors of the subjects and such observations quantified by generating numerical data.


7. Coding system, Event Sampling and Time Sampling.
Coding is a symbolic arrangement of data. When information is coded, it means that they can be transmitted in a manner that the individuals who do not have the primary representations of such codes do not understand or interpret the meaning of the data. Moreover, coding enables a researcher to effectively represent a data in an organized and precise manner. Additionally computation of coded data is easy, and expression of the desired actions can be achieved when a can be electronically represented.

Event sampling is a sampling method that enables the researcher to study ongoing processes that vary across and within a naturally occurring environment. The purpose of event sampling is to make the researcher to understand the prevalence of behaviors, to serve an explanatory role and to promote the development of a theory. Frequent sampling of events enables researchers to detect the dynamic and temporal fluctuations of work experiences and measure the topology of an activity. Participants in vent sampling get a chance to record their perceptions and experiences in a paper of an electronic diary, which will eventually allow studies of events that, are difficult to be conducted in a lab, to be effectively studied.

Time sampling is an observation method that allows the observer to gather information about a group of in a short time period. The observer selects a time interval depending on the focus of observation and then carries out an observation on the subjects within the selected time intervals. The time samples are often useful way of collecting information and presenting the observation data over a long time. Short focused snapshots are also used to collect precise data. Moreover, this methodology can be used applied in the observation of behavior of the subject in order to identify the possible concerns. However, the observer should ensure that the subjects are not aware of the observation processes so as enable them to display their natural behaviors.


8. Case Study and how it is used
A case study acts as a descriptive analysis of a research subject. An explanatory case study is normally used to explore causation so as to establish the underlying principles. Case studies may be either prospective or retrospective. A prospective case study is established and fitted with the case that is fitting such criteria whenever they become available. Prospective case studies, on the other hand, are selected based on historical cases that fit the study. Additionally, a case study can be defined as a research strategy because it is an empirical inquiry that is meant to investigate a real phenomenon. Case study research can be multiple or a single case studies and can include quantitative evidence or even relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefit from the existing theoretical propositions. However, case studies should not be confused with qualitative research because they are based on both quantitative and qualitative evidence.

Published in Sociology
Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:19

Application of Experimental Research

Application of Experimental Research
An experimental research is an evaluation that seeks to establish whether a given intervention of program achieved the intended effect on the participants NCTI (2012). An experimental design is the gold standard of research design of a scientific study, and it is, therefore, considered as a standard against, which other researches can be charged. This is because it is through this methodology that a study can be considered valid and of the reliable results. However, many arguments have been raised indicating that experimental design is either insufficient or inappropriate for other forms of research pertaining to cultural or social phenomena.


There is a very clear distinction between experimental and quasi experimental designs. This difference lies on the manner in, which the selection of units of assignment is done. In experimental research, comparability can be precisely established through random assignment. However, the quasi experimental research contrasts the experimental research design it is often employed in settings where groups or people cannot be randomly assigned because of ethical reasons. In such cases, the goals become rich variety. Therefore, quasi experiments can be said to be the type of studies that aim to evaluate intervention without applying randomization. As compared to randomized trials, quasi experiments also aim to demonstrate the relationship between an intervention and an outcome. The important role of random assignment lies on the fact that, in experimental research, it displays assignment units that are not completely equivalent.
This would be typical for social cultural analysis. Therefore, through this, any observed difference can be certainly attributed to the treatment. However, experimental researches that are based on inert materials do not require characteristic randomization procedures; therefore, comparability of test units is assumable because the same materials are applied in various models or the same physical model can be applied in different contexts. Quasi experimental designs apply non-random designs focusing on establishing groups, which exhibit comparable aspects as possible; obvious indicators that display the groups as substantially non equivalent should not exist (Datafen, 2009).

Perhaps, there is a coding system, which is used by an experimental scientist to diagram details of experimental studies. The coding system includes;
R= Random Assignment
O= Observation of Outcome Variables
X= Experimental Treatment

The various treatments that the experimental designs receive lead to comparable observations, which may even occur before or after a treatment. Experimental research can employ a large variety of tactics. The setting may from a highly controllable laboratory to a field site, which is less controllable. The treatment conditions may also range from highly calibrated physical manipulations to nonphysical categorical conditions. Moreover, the measurement outcome variable may range from precise calibrations of physical change, to descriptive behavioral responses.

In terms of strengths and weakness, experimental research presents with the most controversial design, of all the research strategies. Perhaps it has the potential for the establishment of causality and to generalization of results to conform to other phenomena and settings, but it has received criticism in the aspects of efficacy, misapplication, and ethical concerns. It is unrealistic to reduce most real live setting and socio-cultural events to a small set of treatment and outcomes results are subject to bias, and the research subjects are normally placed in a powerless position, therefore, making the experimental research ineffective (Trochim et al, 2007).


References
NCTI (2012). Experimental Study Design. Retrieved From, http://www.nationaltechcenter.org/index.php/products/at-research-matters/experimental-study-design/ On June 20, 2013.
Datafen, (2009). Experimental Research. Retrieved From, http://data.fen-om.com/int460/research-experimental.pdf On June 20, 2013.
Trochim, W. & Donnelly, J., (2007). The Research Knowledge Base, (3r) Edition.

Published in Sociology
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