Logic and common sense are used in similar situations. The two aspects are in some point similar to each other. This has made them become used as ways of reasoning in order to develop the best decisions in a situation. For instance, we have the knowledge to know what is meant by wet, what rain results to, the color of milk, and that fire can cause damage if exposed in the wrong way. So it stands to make a reason that if you stand in a place that is raining you are going to become wet or if you stand in a place where there is fire you are going to get burnt. I difficult situations, humans use the concepts of logic in solving problems in a progressive manner. Progressive steps are applied in developing sound decisions to given arguments or situations that are technical, (Herreid, 2010).
I think it is vital and relevant to study logic in human life simply because it allows or creates an environment suitable to come up with progressive strategies of solving problems in our life. The scientific method is a good example why humans should learn the concept of logic. In the scientific method, researchers and experimenters use a set of steps in hypothesizing a conclusion and later conduct an experiment that allows them to prove the truth or error of the situation they had developed in the beginning.
It is with no objection that ability that humans have in using logic and reason helps them extensively, (Herreid, 2010). This is because we could be having an environment where we tend to believe everything or anything that come across our life without thinking or testing about its existence. In old days, humans thought that the world was in a flat state. This indicated that when one sail for too far in a single direction he will simply fell off. It is with the help of reasoning and logic humans were able to understand and know that the world was not flat but round. The line of sight was the sole reason for the effect of something that seems to disappear when it is seen from far, (Herreid, 2010).
There are kinds of mistakes that might occur in a place where humans are not properly exposed to careful study of logic in the reasoning context. The kind of mistake in such a situation is referred as the fallacy. The application of a nonexistence principle or the incorrect application of a valid logical principle is the logical fallacy, (Herreid, 2010).
Herreid, C. (2010). The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be. Journal of College Science Teaching, 39(6), 68-72
Quality patient care is an essential factor in the delivery of effective health care services. However, this can only be achieved if a well educated nursing force is available. In fact, research has indicated that fewer medication errors, reduced mortality rates, and positive outcomes are associated with the level of preparedness of nurses at the baccalaureate and graduate levels. To enhance highly qualified nursing workforce, American Association of College of Nursing is committed to working collaboratively because education enhances clinical competency and effective care delivery. This paper, therefore, looks at the nursing work force of today, highlights research that relates education to outcomes, and outlines the ability of four year colleges to enhance nursing education level in the United States.
Differences in Competences between Nurses Based on Degree Level
According to Dianne Moore (West Cost University, 2009), difference between baccalaureate degree in nursing and associate degree in nursing exists. A nurse with a baccalaureate degree in nursing has more opportunities to work in health care setting offering a variety of opportunities for professional growth. The Baccalaureate prepared nurses can also be bedside nurses, case managers, educators, administrators, discharge planners, and work in community clinics, public health, and home health. In fact, in the armed forces, the nurse officer in the nurse corps must have a baccalaureate degree in nursing. The associate degree nursing, on the other hand, is limited to providing a direct hand on patient care, which is more restricted to specific types of health care settings such as skilled care nursing and long term care facilities, hospitals, physician’s offices, and clinics.
Pertaining to the nursing programs, a difference also exists between baccalaureate degree nursing and associate degree nursing. In the baccalaureate program, 125 credits are required as opposed to the 72 credits that are required in the associate degree nursing program. The baccalaureate curriculum also has a different focus, whereby it emphasizes on evidence based nursing and leadership, and additional courses are offered in the curriculum, for example, statistics, research, public health, and critical thinking. Therefore, the additional units prepare baccalaureate nurses to pursue graduate study, which leads to an advanced degree in nursing.
Opposed to the baccalaureate students, students pursuing the program of associate degree in nursing are focused on learning the technical aspects of nursing that are appropriate to the provision of direct care to patients and the families, especially in acute care settings. Therefore, students who undertake associate degree program in nursing learn the knowledge and skills that are required to care for individuals and families during medical conditions restoration after treatment, and they usually practice a highly restricted level of nursing. Additionally, students in the associate nursing degree programs are known to have fewer units, and they are only taught on the basics of leadership as an additional since it is needed for supervision of other health providers. Therefore, the associate degree nursing do not prepare nursing students for graduate study.
Off course an individual may think that being a bedside nurse and not a manager is noble. However, the baccalaureate degree nurses do provide excellent direct patient care. This is because such nurses use research based practice, which enhance better patient outcome, as opposed to the associate degree nursing who are limited by their education to the practical skills. The baccalaureates nurses are, therefore, are excellently whole rounded individuals in the health care since they can effectively provide patient care, management, and even educational services. Indeed, the baccalaureate nursing program offers potentially high flexibility to pursue various types of nursing care within the health care setting.
The baccalaureate degree nursing graduates are today being preferred in many hospitals than the associate degree graduates. This idea has encouraged many nursing staffs in hospitals to go back to school and better their education to achieve baccalaureate degree in nursing so as to become effective in the delivery if the nursing services. Moreover, baccalaureate degree nurses are paid more than their colleagues with associate nursing degree.
It can be argued that baccalaureate degree nurses and associate degree nurses may not have a difference in their level of skill competency when they are graduating, however, within a year the baccalaureate degree nurses tend to show the development of clinical judgment, better problem solving, and greater critical thinking skills. These three skills are important for acute patient care in hospitals and other health care settings.
Perhaps, all nurses are professionals since they receive academic skills in their respective nursing schools and moreover certify the subject professional organization. American Association of College Nursing, therefore, is committed to enhancing competence education outcome s of nursing across all levels. Professional nursing implies participating in all aspects that pertain to effective health care. Therefore, a professional nurse regardless of the curriculum program must be actively involved in research, participate in politics that affect the profession of nursing, achieve effective education programs, and more so focus on delivery of effective health care (American Association College of Nursing, (2012). Adopting the baccalaureate degree nursing program, therefore, is important.
West Coast University, (2009). The Differences between Associate Degree Nurses and the Baccalaureate Degree Nurses. Dianne Moore: Author. Retrieved From, http://www.westcoastuniversity.net/deanscorner/print.php?article=22 On June 21, 2013.
American Association College of Nursing, (2012). Fact Sheet: Creating a More Qualified Nursing Workforce.
The Role of Financial Management in a Firm
In an organization, financial management plays a critical role pertaining to the financial success of the organization. Therefore, an organization should always consider the financial management as the key component that contributes to the general management of the firm. Financial management includes strategic goals and tactics that are related to the financial resources of a firm. Some of the specific roles that are included in financial management systems include, book keeping, accounting, accounts receivable and payable, risk, and investment opportunities. Therefore, the financial management must understand they key financial documents of an organization, such as the balance sheet, statement of cash flow, and income statement. This paper observes the role of financial management in a firm by analyzing the various aspects that pertain to financial management.
Various Aspects of Finance that Management Must Understand
The management of an organization acts as the major determinants of the financial success of an organization. This is because decisions made by financial managers tend to intensively influence the way all the business activities of an organization are conducted.
A financial manager, as the leader of the financial team of an organization is responsible for providing financial support and advice to colleagues and clients in order to enable them make effective business decisions. Therefore, in a business organization, the role of financial manager goes beyond accounting to other multifunctional aspects of effective operation of the firm. Financial managers, therefore, must understand all aspects of the organization to enable them offer adequate support and advice to the chief executive officer pertaining t decision making and enhancing the company profitability and growth (QFinance, 2013). The management must, therefore, understand financial reports, how to implement cash management strategies, direct investment activities, and implementation of long term goals.
An effective financial manager must be able to go through the financial reports of an organization and understand what the indications means to the firm. Through this, the financial manager will be able to provide sufficient advice on measures to be taken for the effective running of the business organization. Similarly, a financial manager should be able to weigh out on the most effective investment activities of the organization.
Why a manager needs to understand the characteristics and importance of financial markets
A financial market is a place is a place whereby financial instruments are traded or exchanged. It, therefore, provides the following major economic functions: Price discovery, reduction of transaction costs, and liquidity. Price discovery is an important function of the financial market because the price of the traded asset is determined by buyers and sellers interaction in the market and the nature of the traded asset. Liquidity function is essential because it provides information of the ability of the subject commodity to fairly sell in a given market at any time, contrary to this, the investor may be forced to hold the commodity. Reduction of transaction costs, on the other hand, implies the charges that the participants in the market are subjected during a transaction (BCCC.bg, 2010). Therefore, a financial manager must understand the characteristics and importance of financial markets in order to make effective decisions pertaining to trading in the market.
QFinance, (2013). The Role of a Financial Manager. Retrieved From, http://www.qfinance.com/balance-sheets-checklists/defining-the-financial-managers-role On June 21, 2013.
BCCC.bg, (2010). Financial Markets. Retrieved From, http://www.bcci.bg/projects/latvia/pdf/7_Financial_markets.pdf On June 21, 2013.
Jane will have a wedding in less than ten weeks. Jane’s wedding is estimated in less than ten weeks. Jane’s remaining wedding preparation will take nine weeks and four days. Therefore, Jane will wed in less than ten weeks. Evidence shows that Karl Popper’s disconfirming a hypothesis strategy is the best and effective approach of providing hypothesis results. Although the method is much better compared to confirming hypothesis approach, I think if you combine the two strategies you will end up with effective results, (Kataria, 2012).
The approach of Karl Poppers hypothesis strategy uses modus tolens in the process of scientific hypothesis, falsifying, and disconfirming. If you want to develop a testing hypothesis strategy, you should be effective and thorough in order to arrive at sound results. The tow strategies are applicable in the testing of hypothesis but works at different ways in developing maximum testable evidence situations. In testing the above hypothesis, I have developed; anyone can apply any method simply because it will result to the same findings. Alternatively, the hypothesis can be tested by contacting the wedding planner to confirm whether Jane is a wedding in less than ten weeks, (Kataria, 2012).
Kataria, M. (2012). The role of scientific hypothesis: Evidence on cognitive bias in formation of beliefs. Journal of Socio-Economics, 41(4), 364-369. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2012.04.005
Stereotyping can be defined as the general opinion someone has based on certain traits towards a group of people. Evidence shows that no room exists when dealing with the issue of stereotyping, and the only thing that exists is the assumptions towards traits of a group. Developing a given stereotype requires someone to have an idea, understand characteristics, and traits of the group referred. Studies show that stereotypes are things that are not permanent simply because they can be changed any moment. It should be noted that stereotypes are not always negative there are those which are positive. I will discuss three different stereotypes that I have encountered in life giving some of the effects they have towards others.
Gender role is one of the stereotypes that I have observed practiced in my family and the community I live. It is generally defined and practiced that men are the heads of the family where they are sole providers of their families and that women are supposed to stay at home and take care of the children. Traditionally, the aspect of gender roles should be observed and respected. Young men are raised in a setting where they are taught to shoot guns and hunt. It is the work of men to train and teach boys on how to become responsible people in the society. Boys are encouraged and taught on how to be active plus they are trained on how to provide security to their families when they grow up. Girls are encouraged to stay with their mothers where they are taught on homely activities.
The society does not encourage girls to participate in sports activities or anything that relates to athletic. The argument developed by the society for girls not to engage in sports activities is that girls are not stronger than boys plus they are the weaker sex. I my view, I see this as flawed reasoning because boys and girls have the same potential thus they should be allowed to pursue and engage in activities they want. The issue of gender role and participation has a negative effect on women because they feel discriminated although this issue is currently degrading, (Mossier, 2011).
The aspect on how people regard the homeless community is another type of stereotype that I have frequently encountered. The community I live has poor people who encounter or experience challenges in their life. ‘The Contributor’ is a publication published in our community, which is sold, by the less fortunate people on street corners. Purchasing this publication costs a dollar where sellers have a given percentage that they are allowed to keep. It’s my tradition to budget for the purchase even if am not going to read the paper. The main reason for this is to support the group so that they can try and meet their daily needs. In a recent discussion, we had with my neighbors I was amazed by their reaction after they realized that I support this people.
They believe that these people are lazy and they only beg money on street corners instead of looking for real jobs out there. In my view, there are many people who are homeless due to different reasons. My argument is that most of them are homeless not because they are lazy bums. Most people who do not support or fail to donate to these people have a notion that they are a drug addict, alcoholic, and lazy. Although this argument is valid, in my opinion I think they are those who are genuinely homeless and need our assistance. This notion may affect people who are ill, mentally affected, and those who lost their jobs because of many reasons. This kind of stereotyping can prevent the society from helping those who are not well and giving to charities, (Herbert, 2008).
Racial Discrimination and Prejudice
The last type of stereotyping I will discuss that I have seen is that of racial discrimination and prejudice. This mostly affects the African American community unlike in the other set of people. Recently we planned to go for a trip with my friends as it has been our tradition. One of our friends planned to come with his friend and the group had no problem with the friend’s thought. It was until we realized that the person to be invited was an African American that concern developed from all angles (including myself). The main problem was not that the person was black American but due to the fact that the place we were visiting is referred to be honky Tonk and we felt he would not love the kind of music played there. Everyone thought that the person would feel out of place and never enjoy it because the place only plays country music. It was not in order for all of us to think that he would not love country music because he was an African American person. The concern was innocent, but it eventually turned to be wrong simply because the person came with us and had the best time and enjoyed every second we spent with him, (Holmberg, 2010).
Herbert, W. (2008). The Neurology of Stereotypes. Retrieved from, http://www.pschologicalscience.org/onlyhuman/2008/04/neurology-of-stereotypes_24.cfm, On June 17, 2013
Holmberg, C.B. (2010) Stereotypes and Stereotyping. In Encyclopedia of American Studies. Retrieved from, http://www.credoreference.com/entry/jhueas/stereotypes_and_stereotyping, On June 17, 2013
Mossier, K. (2011). An Introduction to Logic. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Physician assisted suicide is something that has created a controversial situation for the past few decades. The topic is still being debated in the current setting simply because it creates a lot of ethical questions that at times lack answers. There are people who think that suffering occurs for a reason thus assisted suicide should not be allowed while there are those who believe that relieving suffering should always be the highest priority. It is clear that most people think nothing about their death and how they will die given that they were in a terminally ill condition. Thousands of people die every day where they encounter a lot of pain. These people only get some medications that assist them ease the pain, but in the end they die having suffered from pain which could have been controlled. Assisted suicide or euthanasia should be legalized in order to assist people die a peaceful death because at the end of the day they will die.
It is true that there are people who have class and they would not like to suffer while dying. There are those people who have a right to their death thus physicians should assist them in dying. It is the work of the government to maximize the happiness of its citizens thus at some instances it should allow assisted suicide for patients who do not want to suffer. Death should be taken as an option like the many options we have and choose in life. People are allowed by nature to decide what is right and what is wrong depending on the situation they are, (Nyholm, 2010). Evidence shows that in life people are allowed to make choices of their life such as taking alcohol, taking tobacco, and many more provided they are aware of the consequences that will occur in the end. It should be the same case with the issue of assisted suicide. As long as the person is of sound mind and knows the result, I believe that euthanasia should be legalized and given to those who want. It should be much better if we allow terminally ill patients to have options about their life thus physicians should assist them in any way they want their life end, (Dowbiggin, 2009).
Legalizing physician assisted suicide will allow medical practitioners to pursue their primary role in a healthcare setting and in society. It is with no doubt that different patients suffer in different ways thus health care environment should have different options to think on how to assist their patients. Legalizing physician assisted suicide will help physicians pursue their role in the society simply because they will have the opportunity to give their clients as many options for ending their life, (Sayers & Bethell, 2011). The current situation in health care undermines some of physician’s role in providing services to patients because alleviating pain by means of assisted suicide is not taken as an option. Seeking ways of helping patients to have a continued life is not the only option that should be focused. Assisting patients to reduce their patient should also be an active option and this should only be arrived at if we legalize the aspect of assisted suicide. The objectives of treatment in healthcare are to alleviate or eliminate pain and discomfort that occurs due to illness. Physician assisted suicide should be allowed in order to help physicians pursue and practice their role in the society, (Nyholm, 2010).
There are eminent people who lived a life which was happy. This happiness should be extended even when they are dying. Having this in mind, death should be a form of happiness to those who want to have a smooth death that has no pain. For the benefit of terminally ill patients, physician assisted suicide should be legalized. We have those people who feel they have some status quo and would like to have a dignity life all way through. No need to have such a person suffers from pain 24 hours for more than 6 months. It is the work of the healthcare setting to review the current policy and see on how to help terminally ill people escape from the condition of unbearable pain. There are some illness conditions that cannot be treated with painkillers such as when cancer enters into your bones. In such a case, assisted suicide is the only option simply because the person will eventually die. This is the reason why the current policy should be reviewed and allows the legalization of assisted suicide in order to help patients escape from the unbearable pain, (Dowbiggin, 2009).
There are those people who believes that life is God given and no one have power on deciding on when, how, and in which ways should one end his life expect God the giver of life. If assisted suicide is legalized it will contributes to the violation of medical ethics., Based on the Hippocratic Oath that physicians take when graduating, no one is allowed to give deadly medicine to patients who asks for it. It forbids in the involvement of taking fees for teaching medicine or something that is related to suicide as long as the person is breathing or is in life. Another thing is that if physician assisted suicide when legalized will undermine the trust between patient and doctor. The main belief of society is that doctors are there to preserve life and heal, not to assist patients die on request or not. It is the obligation of doctors to build on this trust by developing an environment where patients feel comfortable when getting assistance from the doctor. Doctors should try not to do anything that is illegal for the purpose of assisting their clients, and since assisted suicide is not legal, it should not be practiced at all levels, (Sayers & Bethell, 2011).
In some instances, we make decisions that are favorable to our life because everyone wants a dignity life. Terminally ill clients should be given chance to make decisions about their life and decide on how they want to die. The government should have some set strategies, and rules on assisting those who are sick and legalizing assisted suicide is one of the ways of helping patients. It is true that the only way for certain patients with critical health conditions is to go for death option. Although we should not stand by that argument that everything should be free for everyone, in matters of life and pain, patients should be given a choice to decide on what they want and how they want to die.
Sayers, G.M. & Bethell, H.W.L., (2011). Pacing extremely old patients: who decides the doctor, the patient, or the relatives? Heart. Doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.022731. Retrieved from, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1768089, on June 8, 2013
Dowbiggin, I. (2009). Historical timeline: History of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. ProCon.org. Retrieved from, http://euthanasia.procon.org/view.source.php?sourceID=581, on June 8, 2013
Nyholm, C. (2010). Doctor Kevorkian interviewed by Anderson Cooper on CNN. Retrieved from, http://www.examiner.com/cable-tv-in-national/doctor-kevorkian-interviewed-by-anderson-cooper-on-cnn, on June 8, 2013
Effects of Technology on Health Care
The healthcare sector has been characterized by rapid technological advancement in the last half a century. These technologies have revolutionized the way of the healthcare system operates. This paper examines the impact of these technological advancements on the health care system.
Technology has improved quality of care by improving the management of health information. The introduction of electronic medical record has made easy for the healthcare system to store, share and convey patient information (Fitchman & Kohli, 2011). Today, patients’ record can be conveyed across departments, organizations and geographical locations with the help of this technological innovation. In the future, it may be possible for organizations to share information beyond national boundaries. Technologies such as social media have also made it easy for healthcare practitioners to reach patients. Physician-patient communication has been enhanced by these technologies. Modern technology has also improved health awareness by providing efficient means for conveying awareness messages.
Technology is also likely to reduce medical errors. For instance, the electronic medical record makes it easier for medical practitioners to retrieve patient information (Krueger, 2010). Thus, the physicians become informed about issues such as allergies or previous treatment. The e-prescription technology also reduced the chance of the pharmacist misinterpreting the physician’s prescriptions. The e-prescription technology also provides the physician with information about drug interaction and also makes payment easy. Technologies such as Computed Tomography (CT) Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have also improved the accuracy of diagnostic processes thus minimizing errors. The CT scan and MRI technologies have also reduced suffering and inconveniences’, among patients, as they are least intrusive diagnostic methods (Krueger, 2010).
Technology has also enhanced the management of healthcare institutions. Technology enables healthcare establishment to utilize health information in other areas such as quality management, staffing and financial management (Haux, 2006). Modern health information system has enabled the sharing of health information across departments and among healthcare organization. This has minimized administrative costs. The online databases created to store patient information also enable the hospital manage to observe various trends. This information is useful in information managerial decisions. For instance, the hospital management may use the data base to observe patient admission trends in different months of the year. This information may be useful in determining the staffing level of the hospital in different months.
Technology has also made the health care system patient centered (Haux, 2006). Traditional methods of managing health information limited the accessibility of this information to physicians and hospital administrators. The electronic medical system makes it easy for other health information users such as patients to access this information. Technology has also led to medical advancement by aiding research (Fitchman & Kohli, 2011). Technologies such as the electronic medical records provide research with easy access to information. The digital system of managing information makes it possible for research to sort out data and get access to the required information.
Technology has also raised several ethical concerns. Security and privacy of patient information is one of these ethical concerns (Tan & Ong, 2009). Technologies such as the electronic medical system make patient information easily accessible. This exposes patients to privacy and security threats as their personal information can easily be accessed by unauthorized persons. Ethical issues such as patient autonomy and individual rights have been fueled by advancement in technology. Medical technologies such as life support system make it possible for physicians to preserve life (Tan & Ong, 2009). A huge dilemma emerges concerning whether it right for physicians to withdraw these life support system when the patient or his family demand. Modern technologies have also enabled procedures such as tissue culture, abortion, organ transplant and test tube babies. Some scientists have also tried to develop human cloning technologies. These developments have raised ethical arguments concerning how far man can go in manipulating the natural environment.
Fitchman R. & Kohli R. (2011). The Role of Information Systems in Healthcare. Information Systems Research. 22 (3): 419- 428
Haux R. (2006). Health Information System: Past, Present and Future. 75: 268- 281
Krueger A. (2010). Six Ways Technology is Improving Healthcare. June 28, 2013. http://www.businessinsider.com/6-ways-technology-is-improving-healthcare-2010-12?op=1
Tan L. & Ong K. (2009). The Impact of Medical Technology on Healthcare Today. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 9 (4): 232- 236
The health care industry is one of the sectors that have experienced the widest form of technological advances. Technology has changed the health care industry. Treatments and surgeries that were unthinkable are now a reality and practiced in all healthcare facilities. Technology has advanced treatment, health care delivery and improved the equipment used by physicians, and nurses to render effective health care services. It is evident that technological advancements are bound to enhance and improve the health care industry. One of the technological areas that is bound to have a positive effect on the health care industry is the information and communication technologies. Advancements in the health information system mean that technologies such as the internet will; be used as an external delivery portal to enhance health care delivery through the provision of patient-specific information.
Communication in Healthcare
Communication between patients and physicians has traditionally been assumed to be oral and informed shared is done by the word of mouth. Technological advancements in the communication sector is bound to improve health care delivery in the health care industry. Health care facilities that adopt effective communication technologies are able to improve their service delivery and guarantee improved health care services. Currently, care givers and health care providers are using basic communication technologies to enhance their service delivery (Wager, & Glaser, 2009). It is, however, expected that the health care industry will realize significant improvements with emerging and improving technologies. Health care facilities need to embrace communication infrastructures that enhance the provision of effective health care services and ascertain that patients will access quality care.
Electronic Communication in Healthcare
The use of the internet and other form of electronic communication has revolutionized health care delivery in the industry. The emergence of the internet has enabled health care professionals to access a wide selection of information within the shortest time possible. Initially, physicians and nurses seeking clarification on different health issues had to use literary material such as books. With hardly enough time on their hands, books proved to be difficult to read through so as to access specific information. The internet offered physicians some degree of reprieve as they could access any form of information within a short duration. The internet has also made it easy for the public to access health materials that were previous inaccessible (Coiera, 2006). If, for instance, a patient needs additional information so as to understand his condition, an internet search will ensure that he gets adequate information.
The general public also uses the internet to get informed on different medical and health related issues. Prior to the emergence of the internet, patient relied on their physicians to educate them on issues such as prevention of an illness, is on maintaining optimal health and many other medical issues. The internet has provided patients and the general public with a reliable source of alternative opinion with regard to a medical problem (Haux, & Wolf, 2008).
E-mail use in health care facilities has also facilitated health professional’s ability to save on time and resources. E-mails are fast and easy to use. E-mails also guarantee that recipients receive the information hence risk of information loss as in mails/letters is non-existent. The use of emails as alternative modes of communication in the health care industry is bound to advance as the public become gradually relaxed with the idea of using this technology. E-mails will provide patients and physicians with an alternative consultative platform. Currently, consultation with a physician requires that a patient is physically available at the physician's clinic.
Five years from now, the reality of emails consultation is bound to become a norm. Physicians will use emails to hold consultative meetings with patients (Castellanos, & Meyers, 2004). The consultative meetings could focus on preventive measures, health education and how patients can handle different non emergency situations. The need for physical encounters with physicians will no longer be necessary unless unavoidable. Such technological advancements will see the queues in hospitals and outside physician’s clinics reduce significantly. It is only patients that require mandatory physical examination that will meet the physician physically.
The introduction of telemedicine technology has also enhanced service delivery as physicians are able to share patient’s information, as well as other medical reports. Technologies such as telemedicine has enabled physicians to offer rapid medical assistance as less time is spent interviewing the patient for his medical history. The use of telemedicine in the future is expected to grow with increased connectivity that ensures patient-physicians relations is maintained as physicians are able to reach their patients regardless of their geographical location (Haux, & Wolf, 2008). Concerns over missing appointments will reduce as patients can access their physicians using links such as video conferencing.
The physicians can connect his patient to the nearest referral doctor, if the need for advanced medical check is required and the distance between physicians and the patient is wide. Advancement in telemedicine is bound to improve health care delivery efforts as patients in remote regions will access the services of a doctor. Physicians will also not be troubled with the requirement to travel to the patient in case he is bed-ridden. Advancements in telemedicine are bound to improve with advancements in communication across urban and rural areas (Wager, & Glaser, 2009).
The electronic medical record (EMR) is another form of technology that has changed health care delivery. EMR technology has enabled physicians to offer prompt health care services as they can access a patient’s records within a short duration. EMR allows for the documentation of a patient’s health care visits, and medication. EMR gives the physicians an opportunity to access a detailed record of his patient’s previous medical conditions and medication before he begins his treatments. EMR has also improved the process of information sharing between physicians. It is through EMR that physicians can make patients referral without a lot of paperwork.
EMR also makes the process of processing for payments and claims easy as all medical expenses that a patient incurs is recorded. EMR also guarantees patients privacy and confidentiality as the patients records can be accessed by a few authorized individuals. This is boost from the previous use of physical files that could get misplaced or land in the wrong hands. Five years from now, paper filling as a form of storing patient information will be a thing of the past. All health care facilities will have embraced the EMR technology as a convenient and fast mode of offering quality health care services (Castellanos, & Meyers, 2004). Physicians will no longer be walking with their stethoscopes only. They will be carrying their mobile devices and laptops to their offices. Using these mobile devices the physicians will be accessing patient information on time hence guarantee prompt patient care. The entire health care facility will be interconnected to the extent that different departments can share information via the EMR technology. A lab technician will, for instance, transmit the lab results to the physicians hence no need of physical movement.
The level of technological advancements with regard to software applications is also bound to improve. Currently, there exists different technologies and software used in the treatment of numerous medical conditions manifested in patients. Technologies such as CT scans and ultrasounds communicate essential medical information about a patient’s medical condition. The ideology of robot-assisted surgery is gradually becoming a reality across different health care facility, and in five years time, robotic surgery is expected to be a reality. Surgical robots will be created using software that enable them perform intricate surgical procedures that are currently life threatening.
Robotic surgery will also minimize the time taken to complete a surgical procedure manually. Patients will be able to come off critical medical conditions and recover quickly (Castellanos, & Meyers, 2004). Robotic surgery will also minimize the risk of errors and complications that can cost a patient his or her life. Robotic surgery will also provide a lasting solution to the strained health personnel thus guarantee quality health care services.
Technology advancement is also bound to improve service delivery in the health care industry. In five years time, it is expected that the public will be driven to use the internet based self care. The emergence of internet based self care will see the need of doctors significantly reduce as people will strive to engage in internet based self care. Internet-based care will be the future alternative to directly seeking doctor’s services. With the internet based system of care, an individual will use the web based technologies that include ‘ask the doctor” interactive services. Individuals will have an online physician who can assist them in resolving different medical issues (Coiera, 2006).
This interactive platform will help individuals seek medical assistance for non-emergency situations that a patient can resolve alone. Over the next five years, it is expected that physicians will turn people homes into personal clinical facilities. Physicians will strive to keep patients within the comfort of their home rather than admit them in health care facilities. Health care providers will use monitoring devices that will be used on home based patients to determine their progress when recovering at home.
Technological advancements are bound to affect all sectors in a society. The health care industry is bound to realize some positive effects due to technological advancements in the information sector. Improvements in technology will undoubtedly result to improvements in the health care industry as health care providers will guarantee fast and improved health care services. Currently, a large population is already suing the internet for communication purposes. The health care industry is bound to improve with the use of the internet and other communication channels. Paper work with regard to patient’s records will be replaced with advanced communication technologies such as telemedicine and EMR, where information will be saved and shared across different health professionals who require them.
Castellanos, A. & Meyers, W. (2004). Robotic Surgery. Annual journal of surgery. Vol. 239(1): 14-21
Coiera, E. (2006). Communication systems in healthcare. Journal of clinical biochemistry. Vol. 27(2); 89-98
Haux, R. & Wolf, K. (2008). Health-enabling technologies. Informatics for health & social care. Vol. 33(2): 77-89
Wager, K. & Glaser, J. (2009). Healthcare Information System. A practical Approach to Health Care Management. USA. John Wiley & Sons
The technology of touch
The video demonstrates on the development of technology in the current health care setting, in the society. Katherine Kuchenbecker reveals the importance of touch in the healthcare setting. She tells how the technology of touch can be implemented in the growth of healthcare. She introduces herself as someone who is well informed in matters of mechanical engineering and also she has been able to examine the concept of technology and touch in health care setting. Kuchenbecker says that cameras have the potential to capture the appearance of an object, but they cannot capture or record how it feels to touch. Evidence shows that humans have two areas of touch that they use in their everyday activities. These components are vital in human life simply because they help them in determining how thing feels, (Belaval, 2012).
In explaining how it is vital, she asks if there exist any method to improve technology, like machines and computers by way of touch. Kuchenbecker talks about haptics which is the study of touch technology and how it can be used in health care setting. According to Kuchenbecker’s explanation, there are several technologies that can explain the illusion of touch. This befits sports training, video games, medical fields, museums, and online shopping among others.
She gives an example of medical situation where she argues that, in the practice of dentistry, it might be difficult for new dentists to engage in activities of feeling a cavity condition having rarely engaged in such a situation before feeling. Instead of engaging in activities of learning a human patient, the video suggests that the dentists can decide to use ‘haptography’ in feeling how the cavity feels with the help of dental tools. In summing up the discussion, Kuchenbecker says that technology will be relevant in future where it will be used to tackle patient’s problems. Kuchenbecker has developed an informative talk that gives the relevance of implementing touch in technology for human use, (Kuchenbecker, 2012).
Kuchenbecker’s talk about the concept of the technology of touch has developed something vital and relevant in our society although most people have not been about to point it out. Although she has demonstrated how relevance touch is, she has not mentioned how society is in need of the touch technology. It is with no doubt that although we are in a world of technology, most technology have not gone to the use of sense of touch. Kuchenbecker reminds us how we use touch in our everyday activities but have failed to incorporate the sense of touch in the healthcare setting. Technology in the modern health care helps physicians to diagnose patients and at the same time provide them with proper treatments and care required for their healing, (Belaval, 2012).
Although implementation and incorporation of technology in healthcare has a lot of advantages, it has also some negative impacts. Technology may be expensive at times making it difficult to implement. Another thing is that technology in the modern health care setting may not be compatible to all the needs of the healthcare facility thus fail to provide the required services. It may also raise security and ethical concerns about patient’s information. Implementation of technology in healthcare requires extra training and money in order to make it effective, (Belaval, 2012).
Belaval Díaz, M. (2012). Technology and the human touch: Central to patient healthcare at Hospital de la Concepción. Caribbean Business, 40(21), B22-B23.
Kuchenbecker, K. (2012). The technology of touch. Retrieved from, http://www.ted.com/talks/katherine_kuchenbecker_the_technology_of_touch.html, On June 28, 2013
A fallacy is considered as a kind of error in reasoning. Fallacies are not supposed to be persuasive, but they are normally persuasive. Fallacies can be used in indicating any false belief or a cause of a false belief. Arguments that use poor reasoning are usually referred to as fallacies (Hurley, 2008). There are different fallacies, but this paper will focus on two types of fallacies, which are fallacies of false cause and fallacies of accident.
Fallacies of false cause
A fallacy of false cause is normally committed when the conclusion is resting on the assumption of a causal link existing between two phenomena when all that is shown is a correlation. This fallacy tends to improperly conclude that one thing is usually the cause of another. It is usually committed when an argument is mistakenly used in establishing a causal connection (Engel, 1994). According to the false cause fallacy, it has two kinds, which are post hoc ergo propter hoc. This is a fallacy of arguing that an event has caused another event to happen because it just occurred after the event. An example of this fallacy can be since hair comes before the growth of teeth in children, the growth of hair is the cause to the growth of teeth.
The second kind of fallacy of false cause is non causa pro causa. This is a fallacy of making a mistake concerning the attribution of some cause of the effect. The form of a false cause is that phenomenon X occurs after which Y occurred (Engel, 1994). A good example of a false cause is that Minister Willy raised taxes and then the rates of crimes increases. Therefore, Willy is responsible of the increase in crimes. An increase in the taxes could result to the rise in rates of crime, but the argument does not indicate how one caused the other. Therefore, a way that the fallacy of false cause can be avoided, it is necessary for the arguer to provide an explanation of the process that the increase in taxes resulted to increase in crime rates. In order to avoid committing the fallacy of false cause, it is important to provide an explanation.
Fallacy of accident
According to the fallacy of accident it is usually committed by an argument which tends to apply a general rule to a certain case where some special circumstances make the rule be inapplicable. A fallacy of accident usually start with a statement of some principle which is normally true as a general rule, but it goes wrong when applying the principle in a specific case which is a typical or unusual in some way. An example of a fallacy of accident is Thou shall not kill; therefore, people should not fight for their countries. When using this fallacy, people usually think from general to something that is specific (Engel, 1994). This fallacy usually arises from people believing the general premise that has a qualified meaning that apply in all circumstances with no restriction. An example to illustrate this is that United States is a true democracy; therefore, criminals and also children are supposed to be allowed to vote. This means that criminals and children should not be restricted to vote. Fallacy of accident is usually committed when a person apply generalization to a case that is irrelevant.
The fallacy of accident and fallacy of false cause have nothing in common. These are two fallacies, which are extremely different. The fallacy of accident is completely different as in its use it usually applies the principle or a general rule to a certain case. On the other hand, the fallacy of false cause usually argues that an event has caused another event to happen because it just occurred after the event. The fallacy of accident is based on a principle while the fallacy of false cause is based on the occurrence of a certain event.
The logical form of the fallacy of accident is that X is an accepted and common rule; therefore, there is no exception to X. An example for this fallacy is that I believe that people are never supposed to deliberately hurt other people, and this is the reason as to why I will never become a surgeon. The logical form of fallacy of false cause is phenomenon X occurs after which Y occurred. This means that X caused Y. An example is that, every time you come to visit me, I feel sick. Therefore, the sickness is caused by your visit. This means that I might feel better if you did not visit me.
Fallacy of equivocation
The fallacy of equivocation normally occurs when a key phrase or term in an argument is used in a way that is ambiguous where one meaning is in one portion of the argument and another meaning in another portion (Marenborn 2007). This occurs when a phrase with more than one possible meaning is being used in different senses of an argument. When a fallacy of equivocation is committed, the conclusion is usually drawn as if there is only one meaning that existed (Jacob, 2012). For instance, exciting books are rare, and rare books are usually expensive. Therefore, exciting books are expensive. This is an excellent example of fallacy of equivocation. The two portions of the statement are factual whether the word rare has two distinct and similar meanings.
Another example to describe this fallacy is Tom claim to believe Thou shall not kill commandment. However, Tom eats meat that usually involves killing animals, and he also eats carrots for his food. The conclusion to this premise is that Tom is a hypocrite who is violating a rule that he claims to believe. The word Kill is an equivocation. When looking at the commandment, thou shall not kill refers to killing people where it can be translated as murder forbidding wrongful killing or illegally killing people. Therefore, this commandment is not violated by killing plants and non human animals. In order to spot fallacy of equivocation, a person is required to be sensitive to the many meanings and the subtle nuances that the phrase or word can have.
Fallacy of amphiboly
A fallacy of amphiboly is an error in fallacy or logic which tends to arise from misunderstanding or ambiguity because of grammar and usually through wrong choice of a word or punctuation (Jacob, 2012). A fallacy of amphiboly can be utilized on purpose or it might happen accidentally because of a language that is used without editing, or hastily. The nature of the fallacy of amphiboly is ambiguity meaning that the argument that is supported by the fallacy can be argued against through addressing the different possible meanings. This fallacy can be used to great comedic effect as it plays an ambiguity for purposes of comedic. Comedians are considered as often using the fallacy of amphiboly as the ambiguity can be used in creating the comedy in a joke (Marenborn 2007). The improper use of pronouns and punctuations is normally responsible of causing the fallacy of amphiboly.
A good example that can be used in showing the fallacy of amphiboly is the statement the surgeon wanted to operate the patient, but he was not ready. The word ‘he’ in this statement is ambiguous, which could refer to the patient or the surgeon. The word has a tremendous effect on the meaning of this sentence. This is a statement that has two meanings, and it can easily result to an argument or debate where the ambiguous pronoun has masked the real meaning of the sentence.
The fallacy of amphiboly can be similar to the fallacy of equivocation although there is a difference between these two fallacies. The fallacy of amphiboly normally occurs because of grammatical problem, which tend to create the possibility of confusion or ambiguity. On the other hand, fallacy of equivocation is ambiguity which occurs because of the poor choice of word. This ambiguity happens when a person uses a word that he feels has a particular meaning that may have numerous meanings, which can be used to point out the weaknesses in a certain argument. The fallacy of equivocation and amphiboly create ambiguous meanings in a statement, and they should be clarified as part of the argument.
Marenborn, J (2007). The many roots of medieval logic BRILL
Hurley, P (2008). A concise introduction to logic Cengage Learning
Jacob, V (2012). Informal logical fallacies University Press of America
Engel, M (1994). Fallacies and pitfalls of language Dover publications