Items filtered by date: November 2016
Tuesday, 29 November 2016 06:08

The Internet Connected Smart Washer/Dryer

The Internet Connected Smart Washer/Dryer


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Systems Analysis

Current existing washer-dryers have standard washing programs and software. They have limited configurations and settings that allow specific types of clothes such as cotton, human-made materials, and delicate fabrics. The current washer-drier has a limited range of different types of temperatures. Current systems are modeled with some additional options such as pre-wash, extra rinse, and spin. Washer-dryer have special cycles which are designed for specific scenarios manual systems such as hand-washing, curtains, sportswear and even trainers. The current washer-dryers have a filter designed for catching fluff which gets whipped up when drying. However, they have limited capabilities in filtering bits of debris. They are highly manuals and add tasks such as the need to be cleaned regularly. They are noisy and may cause pain on the back since some models are often close to the ground making them fiddly to open and operate. The system has problems associated with dry cleaning due to conflicting systems and configurations. The current washer dryers, when implemented, may either need to have an additional hook-up system, tool, or process behind the dryer. However, a manual configuration of adding water is usually required via a dispenser on the machine.

The condenser system in a washer-dryer cools most of moist and hot air inside the machine. However, the system has the poor disposal of produced water. The water is poured down the drain. The system must use water and cannot operate without the sustainable amount of water. The system cleaning process uses a lot of water. It fails to save water and conserve scarce resources. The lack environments friendly characteristics make the washer-dryers a poor choice for individuals whose houses have a water meter. Current energy ratings configured in Washer-dryers are rated at a range of A+ and G for energy efficiency. However, the A+ being the most efficient lacks to be compatible with machine temperatures due to ever heating (Deng, et al., 2015). Sometimes temperature ratings officially may go down to G levels; however, in real practice current machines cannot be found which are below C in the shops. The system has incorporated electric translation equipment that uses twice the energy making it poorer compared to an ordinary household electric current. Existing washer dryer system run on a 240-volt current that leads to heating up if coils. The system requires a special 240-volt outlet ports within laundry area.

Proposed Washer-Driers

The washer dryers should be installed with sensor dry which is a moisture sensor programmed with the high intelligent capability to detect the degree of wetness your laundry is automatically. It is capable of adjusting the drying time automatically according to user preferences after defining the level of damp or completely dry. The new capability is targeted to save time and money as well as energy costs. The improvement will prevent over drying thus maintaining a high level of extended life of clothes (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The proposed system is required to perform effective and efficient eco cycle which significantly enables continuous decreasing of energy through the use of accurate monitoring clothes’ dryness using automated programming systems that trigger eco cycle. The washer dryers shall be modeled with a monitor on their console. The platform shall facilitate easy displaying if the energy use and efficiency of various drying cycles. The embedded monitor is intended to enable easy interface fire users to work with the system. A dryer fitted with an eco-cycle will be capable of using less energy. The high performance shall be guaranteed by pairing it with a matching washer. The system shall have a high responsive operator system used for recycling various by-products by covering them into energy(Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The proposed washer dryer has an express dry software system that has the capability of controlling the dry cycle using large integrated blowers. It shall facilitate increased airflow to enhance laundry dries perform more effectively and efficiently. The system implements dry Express software to regulate streams reaching clothes. The mechanism has a complete configuration for facilitating well-advanced traits for removing stains removal as well as removing greases (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The project is focused on setting appropriate processor that can accommodate steam and control steam cycles through system registers. The systems shall have the capability of refreshing the outfit, enabling relaxing of wrinkles, and removing odors. The settings and configurations set shall involve the use of a small amount of water. This shall reduce the amount of water used thus enabling conservation of water. The water supplied will be in the form of sprays fed into the dryer drum after set level of minute’s interaction with heat. During development and installation of steam, controllers shall be set to trigger periodically during tumbling session. The arrangement will facilitate effective rearranging fluffing of the load as well as keeping wrinkles from forming. Washer dryer shall adjust settings and configurations automatically based on the number of garments feed in the dryer (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The system will be installed with highly delicate systems that facilitate effective and efficient coordination of cycles using an ultra-low temperature. The system will have high intellectual potential using analytical sensors to enable safely and gently drying of lightweight garments. The sensor mechanisms shall have the capability to identify loosely woven fabrics and perform best operations in implementing best strategies in cleaning and drying them. The new system guarantees that clothes will last longer as well as keep their color longer due to the use of the correct temperatures (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The system is intended to apply an effective and efficient application of sanitation that shall facilitate eradication of pathogen causing. The future washer and dryer shall have methods to kill bacteria and germs that find their way into fabrics. Dryer will be equipped with a sanitizing cycle that helps in providing relief to children, youths, and adults with frequent allergies. The system promotes a high level of health by ensuring that all forms of disease-causing organisms will be denatured by use of high heat or steam. The sanitization process shall be promoted through the use of processors coordination. The proposed system shall guarantee that health conditions are guaranteed so that they are easily washed. The process of sanitation cycle installed in systems shall ensure it shall be capable of eliminating up to 99.9% of common household pathogens and bacteria (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The Implementation of the Proposed System

The proposed system shall be developed using ARM Cortex-M33 processor which is the most configurable with washer and dryer using Cortex-M processors. The project is full featured with microcontrollers which support various classes of processors. The smart washer and dryer shall be based on the latest version of ARMv8-M architecture developed by ARM TrustZon vendors. The system shall be emphasized due to high security and improved digital signal processing. Through integrating Cortex-M33 smart washer will provide all of the security benefits as guaranteed by TrustZone security isolation (Goodwin, et al., 2013).Cotex-M33 guarantees full optimization of deterministic, trough facilitating application of real-time microcontroller classes of processor operations.

The proposed smart washer and dryer is intended to use ARM Cortex-M33 processor which supports a large number of flexible configuration and settings of options. Through new version of Cortex-M33 features such as the deployment of a wider range of diverse applications shall be facilitated. The systems implemented shall include well-connected systems of enabled Bluetooth IoT node. The systems shall, therefore, be easy and capable of using a dedicated co-processor interface. ARM Cortex-M33 processor supports Wi-Fi-enabled operations. The added Wi-Fi features allow users to implement IoT products which include issues such as Nest to control the washer and dryer. Use of Wi-Fi enabled applications allows running of the machine at lower energy prices. (Jing, et al., 2014) The system shall improve and extend the capability of the processors by use of frequently used applications to compute intensive operations. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor is intended to improve capabilities such as of delivering an optimum balance of high-level performance, effective energy efficiency, as well as security and productivity.

Significance of Proposed System

ARM Cortex-M33 processor provides a security foundation, that guarantee offering of isolation to ensure effective protection of valuable configuration and settings using TrustZone technology. The new smart washer and dryer shall utilize an effective extension of the processor operations that utilize tightly coupled co-processor interface. ARM Cortex-M33 processor is the most effective and efficient application architecture that simplify the smart washer and dryer design. The system enhances the best utilization of software development to facilitate the use of digital signals. The current system enhances utilization of control systems which has integrated digital signal processing (DSP) for allowing users to implement and feed instructions. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor system has best configurations for controlling temperatures. Smart washer and dryer use single precision floating point to compute an accurate measure of mathematical operations. The applied methods include up constant multiplier of 10x Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). The system ensures use of equivalent integers as well as software libraries with the optional floating point units. ARM Cortex-M33 processor shall facilitate achieving most of the industrial system conservation of energy through the effective use of the integrated software such as controlled sleep modes, variable extensive clock gating as well as optional state retention.

Figure 1: System Integration Architecture for ARM Cortex-M33 processor

System Properties and Requirements


ARMv8-M Mainline (Harvard)

ISA Support

A64 is a new 32-bit fixed length instruction set to support the AArch64 execution state




Optional TrustZone for ARMv8-M

Co-processor interface

smart washer and drier require optional dedicated co-processor bus interface for up to 8 co-processor units for custom compute

DSP Extensions

Optional Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Single instruction, multiple data SIMD instructions
system requires extension with Single cycle 16/32-bit MAC
system requires extension with Single cycle dual 16-bit MAC
system requires extension with 8/16-bit SIMD arithmetic

Floating Point Unit

Smart washer and drier require operating single precision floating point unit
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 754 compliant

Memory Protection

Smart washer and drier require operating Memory Protection Unit (MPU) with up to 16 regions per security state


Non-maskable Interrupt (NMI) and up to 480 physical interrupts with 8 to 256 priority levels

Wake-up Interrupt Controller

Smart washer and drier require operating Wake-up Interrupt Controller for waking up the processor from state retention power gating or when all clocks are stopped

Sleep Modes

Smart washer and drier will be Integrated with wait for event (WFE) and wait for interrupt (WFI) instructions with Sleep On Exit functionality.


Smart washer and drier require operating Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) & Serial-Wire Debug Ports. Up to 8 Breakpoints and 4 Watchpoints.


Smart washer and drier require operating Instruction Trace (ETM), Micro Trace Buffer (MTB), Data Trace (DWT), and Instrumentation Trace (ITM)

Table 1: System Properties and Requirements

Smart Washer and Dryer A system Block Diagram

The smart washer and dryer are based on the ARM Cortex-M33 processor which is enhanced with different types of functionalities that enable smart washer, and dryer peripherals to perform cleaning functionalities. The smart washer and dryer systems are configured and installed with industrial interfaces such as EtherCAT and PROFIBUS. The Smart washer and drier support high-level operating systems (HLOS). It can be integrated with devices running Linux and Android. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor contains various subsystems as show and a brief description about the smart washer and dryer. The smart washer and dryer have microprocessor unit (MPU) subsystem which is based on the ARM Cortex-M33 processor and the PowerVR SGX (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). The smart washer and dryer systems consist of PRU-ICSS which has a direct connection to the ARM Cortex-M33 processor this allows independent operation as well as high-level clocking for greater efficiency and flexibility. Through the configuration of the PRU-ICSS adding peripheral interfaces is easily enabled. It facilitates system to operate under real real-time protocols such as EtherCAT, PROFIBUS, Ethernet Powerlink, PROFINET, EtherNet/IP, Sercos, and others. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor, allow users to perform the programming of the PRU-ICSS, to work effectively along with its access to pins during washing events. Smart washer and dryer have microprocessors have system-on-chip (SoC) resources that provide flexibility in facilitating implementation of fast, real-time responses. Smart washer and dryer have microprocessor which is specialized in handling clothes operations (Xia, et al., 2015). Other functionalities allow customizing of peripheral interfaces. The systems can easily perform offloading tasks from the other microprocessors using cores of SoC.

Figure 2: A system block diagram showing component interconnect

Marketing Data and Information

Smart washer and dryer use up to 1-GHz Sitara ARM Cortex-M33 processor of 32-Bit RISC Processor with the following features

1. NEON Single Instruction Multiple data (SIMD) Core processor

2. 32KB of L1 Instruction as well as 32KB of Data Cache with Single-Error Detection (Parity)

3. 256KB of L2 Cache With Error Correcting Code (ECC)

4. 176KB of On-Chip Boot Read Only Memory (ROM)

5. 64KB of Dedicated Random Access Memory (RAM)

6. Emulation and Debug using JTAG

7. Interrupt Controller that can handle up to 128 Interrupt requests

8. On-Chip Memory which is shared on L3 Random Access Memory (RAM)

9. 64KB of General-Purpose Registers On-Chip Memory Controller (OCMC) Random Access Memory (RAM)

10. Accessible to all Masters

11. Supports Retention for Fast Wakeup

Features of External Memory Interfaces (EMIF) as applied in Smart washer and dryer

a. Memory uses mDDR(LPDDR), DDR2, DDR3, DDR3L controller with the following specifications

b. mDDR operating at 200-MHz Clock to 400-MHz Data Rate

c. DDR2 operating at 266-MHz Clock to 532-MHz Data Rated. DDR3 operating at 400-MHz Clock to 800-MHz Data Rate

e. DDR3L operating at 400-MHz Clock to 800-MHz Data Rate

f. Connection bus is 16-Bit Data Bus with 1GB of total addressable space that can support One x16 or Two x8 Memory Devices

General-Purpose Registers Memory Controller (GPMC)

Smart washer and dryer have a Flexible 8-Bit to 16-Bit Asynchronous Memory Interface With up to Seven Chip that programmed to use NAND, NOR, Muxed-NOR, SRAM processor makes use of BCH Code that Supports 4-, 8-, or 16-Bit ECC (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). It is configured with Hamming Code that Supports 1-Bit ECC

Features of Error Locator Module (ELM) applied in the Smart washer and dryer system

It is used in conjunction with the GPMC that are capable of locating Addresses of data and information errors from syndrome polynomials generated using a BCH Algorithm. It is designed to supports 4-, 8-, as well as 16-Bit in every 512-Byte.

Programming technology applied on block error location is based on BCH

Algorithms that supports Programmable Real-Time Unit Subsystem as well as Industrial Communication Subsystem (PRU-ICSS). The programming languages applied Supports Protocols such as PROFINET, EtherCAT, PROFIBUS, EtherNet/IP among others (Goodwin, et al., 2013). The processor is fitted with Programmable Real-Time Units (PRUs) with the following features

1. 32-Bit Load Storage component with RISC Processor which is capable of running at 200 MHz

2. 8KB of Instruction set which uses a RAM With single-Error detection parity

3. 8KB of Data using Random Access Memory (RAM) with single-Error Detection (Parity)

The processor runs a single-Cycle that enhances the use of 32-Bit Multiplier With 64-Bit Accumulator. It has enhanced GPIO Modules that provides a shift in and shift out support services with modified parallel latch on external signal systems. The system uses 12KB of Shared Random Access Memory (RAM) with a single-Error detection parity bit. The system is fitted with about three 120-Byte registers which are accessible by all PRU. The configurations made include interrupt controller (INTC) specifically for handling system input events (Wang, et al., 2015). It has a local interconnect bus that is dedicated to connecting internal and external masters that rely on other resources embedded inside the PRU-ICSS

The Peripherals integrated inside the PRU-ICSS

a. One UART Port With heat flow control pins supports up to 12 Mbps

b. It has one Enhanced Capture (eCAP) Module for facilitating camera capturing

c. It uses two MII Ethernet Ports that Support is dedicated to supporting industrial Ethernet which includes EtherCAT

d. It is fitted with One MDIO Port

Figure 3: block schematic diagram of smart washer and drier controller

Retrieved from:

Power Control

Energy and power are controlled using Power Reset, and Clock Management (PRCM) Module. It is used to control the smart washer and dryer power consumption through regulating entry and exit of stand-By and deep-Sleep modes. PRCM is responsible for determining sleep sequencing using power or domain switching such as wake-Up sequencing, off Sequencing, and Power Domain switch-On

sequencing. The amount of power used in the system is determined by two none switchable Power Domains that works on Real Time Clock (RTC), and Wake-Up Logic (WAKEUP). The amount of power released on the system is determined by three switchable power domains which include MPU subsystem (MPU), SGX530 (GFX), and Peripheral systems infrastructure (PER) (Goodwin, et al., 2013). The power control devices implement Smart Reflex Class 2B for core voltage scaling. They sense and trigger power supply based on die temperature, heating process variation, as well as performance indicators for adaptive voltage scaling (AVS). ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer has been programmed to facilitate dynamic voltage frequency scaling (DVFS) using Real-Time Clock (RTC). It can be applied to specify real-Time Date regarding day, month, year, or day of a week to control energy consumption. Users can specify the time regarding hours, minutes, and second information.

System Clocks

ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run the smart washer and dryer run between 15- to 35-MHz using high-Frequency oscillators. It is designed to generate a reference clock cycle for various internal systems and peripheral clocks. It has been to automatically run individual clocking mechanism that enables and disable energy control for subsystems. It regulates the amount of energy supplied through peripherals to facilitate reduced amount of power consumption.

ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer has Internal 32.768-kHz oscillator, RTC logic and 1.1-V Internal LDO used for controlling independent power using RTC_PWRONRSTn input. The system is configured with dedicated input pin called EXT_WAKEUP for controlling and managing external wake events. The system has been installed with programmable alarm systems used to generate automated internal and external interrupts to the PRCM during wake up or direct to ARM Cortex-M33 processor for abnormal event Notification (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). Users can perform custom programming using for automated alarm to facilitate external Output using PMIC_POWER_EN which enables the Power Management IC module to restore Non-RTC power domains

Peripherals for Power Control and Management

1. Use of up to three USB 2.0 High-Speed OTG input and output power ports With Integrated PHY

2. Use of up to three industrial Gigabit Ethernet MACs ranging at 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps

3. Integrated Switch

4. MAC systems Supports MII, RGMII, RMII, and MDIO Interfaces

5. Configured Ethernet MACs with switching systems that enhance operating at independent of other functions.

6. Use of integrated IEEE 1588v2 with a precision of specific time protocol (PTP)

7. Use of Enhanced Controller Area Network (CAN) Ports that supports CAN that gives 2 Parts A and B voltage supply that can transmit as well as receive clocks beyond 50 MHz

Programming languages used

ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer has been developed using tile-Based Architecture to deliver up to 20 Million Polygons per Second. The architecture implements Universal Scalable Shader Engine (USSE) is the main development engine for a multithreaded engine incorporating pixel as well as vertex shader functionality. The programming languages applied include advanced Java and JavaScript to design shader features. The platform for developing ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer includes Microsoft framework VS3.0, PS3.0, and OGL2.0. CSS has been applied for developing industry standard API that supports direct3D mobile devices, OGL-ES 1.1 and 2.0, OpenVG 1.0, as well as OpenMAX (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). The Visual Basic programming language has been used to program Fine-Grained Task Switching module, load balancing, and power management platforms. It has also facilitated the development of advanced geometry of DMA-Driven Operations such as minimum CPU Interaction.CSS has been implemented to facilitate programming of a high-quality image for facilitating anti-aliasing of fully virtualized graphics in the memory addressing for effective OS operation in Unified memory architecture.

Future improvements of ARM Cortex-M33 processor on smart washer and dryer

The improved system shall be expected to run 32 Bit, 64 Bit, and 128-bit eCAP Modules. The modifications will be configured to capture inputs using three auxiliary PWM outputs. The system shall support above Six UARTs (Ministerrådet, 2007). All UARTs shall support IrDA and CIR Modes, RTS and CTS heat flow control. The UART1 architecture also supports full modem control for both master and slave serial interfaces. The improved system is intended to support the following

1. Up to four Chip Selects

2. Up to 98 MHz

3. Up to Three MMC, SD, SDIO Ports

4. 1-, 4- and 8-Bit SD, MMC, SDIO Modes

5. MMCSD0 will have a dedicated power rail running 1.8-V and 3.3-V

6. Facilitate 48-MHz Data Transfer Rate

7. Supports Card Detection and Write Protection

8. Future system shall Comply With MMC4.3, SD, SDIO 2.0 features, and specifications

Future system shall enable easy device Identification through integration of electrical fuse farm (FuseFarm) which shall include some Bits being factory programmable to support features such as

1. Unique production ID

2. Device Part Number (Unique JTAG ID)

3. Device Revision code Readable by host ARM

Future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer shall have modified debug interface to support features such as JTAG and cJTAG for ARM Cortex-M33 processor, PRCM, and PRU-ICSS Debug added supports shall include device boundary scanning with IEEE 1500 features

Future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer will have an On-Chip Enhanced DMA Controller (EDMA) with six third-Party Transfer Controllers (TPTCs) and three Third-Party Channel Controller (TPCC), which shall support up to 128 Programmable Logical Channels and 16 QDMA Channels (Ministerrådet, 2007). EDMA will be used for facilitating easy transfers to and from On-Chip Memories and Transfers to and from External Storage such as EMIF, GPMC, Slave Peripherals.

The future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer shall have Inter-Processor Communication (IPC) interface that Integrates Hardware-Based Mailbox for IPC as well as connecting spinlock for Process synchronization between PRCM, and PRU-ICSS the system will (Ministerrådet, 2007). The Spinlock will have 128 Software-Assigned Lock Registers that shall support:

1. Mailbox Registers for Generating Interrupts

2. Three Initiators such as PRCM, PRU0, PRU1

Future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer shall have features to support security such as Crypto Hardware Accelerators using AES, SHA, RNG. They shall have secure boot and boot modes. The Boot Mode shall be selected through boot configuration pins or the interface LCD Latched on the rising edge of the smart washer and dryer PWRONRSTn reset input pin. They will be in the following packages

1. 298-Pin S-PBGA-N298 with channel package of (ZCE Suffix), 0.65-mm Ball Pitch

2. 324-Pin S-PBGA-N324 Package with (ZCZ Suffix), 0.80-mm Ball Pitch

Figure 4: Future changes and modification of smart washer and drier

Retrieved from:

Cost of Implementing Smart Washer and Drier

item description

Estimated expenses

Field research

$ 500.00

Consultation fees

$ 300.00

Operations planning

$ 200.00

Conducting internet searching expenses

$ 200.00

Facilitating Interviews

$ 200.00

Monitoring and managing development process

$ 1000.00


$ 3000.00

compact disk

$ 200.00


$ 1000.00

Documentation and deliverables

$ 1000.00


$ 200.00


$ 36000.00

Estimated Time for Constructing of Smart Washer and Drier











Planning and business analysis of the Smart Washer and Drier

Feasibility study scope definition and budget defining of Smart Washer and Drier

The designing and implementation of Smart Washer and Drier

The testing installation and documentation of Smart Washer and Drier


Asare-Bediako, B., Ribeiro, P. F., Kling, W. L., & 2012 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT Europe). (2012). Integrated energy optimization with smart home energy management systems. 1-8.

Deng, R., Yang, Z., Chow, M.-Y., & Chen, J. (2015). A Survey on Demand Response in Smart Grids: Mathematical Models and Approaches. Ieee Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 11, 3, 570-582.

Farokhi, F., Cantoni, M., & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference (AUCC). (2015). Distributed negotiation for scheduling smart appliances. 327-330.

Goodwin, S., Dykes, J., Jones, S., Dillingham, I., Dove, G., Duffy, A., Kachkaev, A., ... Wood, J. (2013). Creative User-Centered Visualization Design for Energy Analysts and Modelers. Ieee Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 19, 12, 2516-2525.

Jing, Z., Taeho, J., Yu, W., Xiangyang, L., & IEEE INFOCOM 2014 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. (2014). Achieving differential privacy of data disclosure in the smart grid. 504-512.

Ministerrådet, N. (2007). Impact of energy labelling on household appliances. Copenhagen: Nordiska ministerrådets förlag.

Wang, C., Zhou, Y., Wu, J., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., & Wang, D. (2015). Robust-Index Method for Household Load Scheduling Considering Uncertainties of Customer Behavior. Ieee Transactions on Smart Grid, 6, 4, 1806-1818.

Xia, L., Alpcan, T., Mareels, I., Brazil, M., de, H. J., Thomas, D. A., & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference (AUCC). (2015). Modelling voltage-demand relationship on power distribution grid for distributed demand management. 200-205.

Published in Computer Science
Saturday, 05 November 2016 06:05



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            The mbed rapid prototyping environment and the platform are for the microcontrollers. The environment is a cloud-based IDE and the NXP LPC1768 development board. Over the last several years, the mbed platform has seen extensive growth and development. However, the hardware side of things has not had such growth. This was not good news since the matching development boards usually cost less. This could be one of the reasons why the mbed did not gain popularity like other rapid development platforms. Now there is another powerful board to be used alongside the mbed, the Freescale FRDM-KL25Z which is a move towards the right direction for the Freescale and mbed. The platform allows users to access dirt-cheap development boards and user-friendly IDE.

What is mbed?

            mbed is an online development platform and the environment. mbed is also similar to cloud computing services like Google Docs and Zoho Office. However, mbed environment has some advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is there is no need of installing software on the PC. As long as the user has a web browser and a USB port, they can start using mbed environment. In addition, the new libraries and the IDE updates are handled by the server. Therefore, the user does not have to worry about updating the mbed environment. The online environment can closely monitor while updating the MCU firmware when required. However, the environment is disadvantageous in that the user cannot work with their code off-line. Additionally, it has privacy issues (Boxall, 2013).

Figure 1: mbed environment

              It can be seen from the above diagram that the IDE is straight-forward. All the user’s projects can be retrieved from the left column while the editor in the main window, compiler, and other messages are in the bottom window. It also has an online support forum, an official library, and library database. It also has help files among many other components. Therefore, it has plenty of support. It writes code in C/C++, and it does not have any major challenges. When the code is being run, the online compiler creates a binary file which can be downloaded easily and subsequently copied to the hardware through the USB (Marao, 2015).

Freedom Board

            A Freedom board is a cheap development board which is based on the Freescale ARM Cortex – M0+ MKL25Z128VLK4. It has the following features (Styger, 2014):

  1. Easy access to the MCU I/O
  2. MKL25Z128VLK4 MCU – 48 MHz, 128 KB Flash, 16 KB SRAM, USB OTG (FS), 80LQFP
  3. It has Capacitive touch “slider” MMA8451Q accelerometer; tri-color LED
  4. It has a complex OpenSDA debug interface
  5. It has a default mass storage device storage programming interface. Additionally, it does not require any tools for installation in evaluating demo apps
  6. Freedom board’s P&E Multilink interface provides the required run-control debugging as well as compatibility with the IDE tools
  7. Freedom board’s open-source data logging applications provide what can be said to be customer, partner, and development on the OpenSDA circuit.

Figure 2: Freedom Board

            Most of the literature on the board, it is mentioned to be “Arduino compatible.” Being Arduino compatible is because of the layout of the GPIO pins. Therefore, if a user has a 3.3 V-compatible Arduino shield, they may be in a position to use it. However, the I/O pins are able only to sink or source a 3 mA so GPIO should be handled with care. However, as can be seen from the features, Freedom Board has an accelerometer as well as an RGB LED which can be used for various uses (Sunny IUT, 2015).

Getting Started

            This explains the process through which a Freedom board is put into working with mbed as well as creating first program (Hello world). The requirements are a computer installed with any operating system (OS) with USB, connection to the Internet, and a web browser. Additionally, there is a need for a USB cable (mini-A to A) and lastly a Freedom board. Here is the procedure:

  1. Ensure the Freedom board is there
  2. Download and install the required USB drivers for any operating systems preferably Windows and Linux
  3. Create a user account at by strictly following the instructions given
  4. Plug in the Freedom board by use of USB socket labeled OpenSDA. After plugging the Freedom board, it is going to appear as a disk referred to as “bootloader.”

            Among the following steps, plugging in the Freedom board, getting software, building and running, and creating are the most important. Choosing the software is selecting the development path. The user chooses between Kinetis Software Development Kit (SDK) + Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and ARM mbed Online Development Site (Styger, 2014).

Features of SDK+IDE

  1. It has the ultimate flexibility of the software
  2. It has examples of application and project files
  3. It has a true support of debugging through the SWD and JTAG
  4. It has all the peripheral drivers with their source

Features of ARM mbed Online Development Site

  1. It has an online compiler but lacks SWD, and/or JTAG debug
  2. It has heavily abstracted and simply built programming interface
  3. Although it is useful, its drivers are limited with a source
  4. It has examples submitted by the community

Build and Run SDK demonstrations on the FRDM-KL25Z

  1. Exploring the SDK Example Code

The Kinetis SDK has an inbuilt long list of applications for demo as well as examples of drivers.

  1. Build, Run, and Debug the SDK examples

This is step-by-step instructions on the user can easily configure, build, and debug the demos for the toolchains easily supported by the SDK

Creating Applications for the FRDM-KL25Z

  1. Getting the SDK Project Generator

This explains the creation of the project and making of a simple SDK-based application. Using the NXP, the users will be provided with intuitive, simple project generation utility thus allowing easy creation of custom projects according to the Kinetis SDK

  1. Running the SDK Project Generator

After the extraction of the ZIP file, the utility is opened by a simple click on the KSDK_Project_Generator executable for the computer’s operating system. Then the board used as a reference is selected.

Figure 3: KSDK Project Generator

Open the Project

The new project will be retrieved from <SDK_Install_Directory>/examples/frdmkl25z/user_apps. The project is opened on the toolchain

iv. Writing Code

            Writing code is making a new project which is functional other than spinning in an infinite loop. The examples of the SDK have a board support package (BSP) to help in doing different things to the Freedom board. This includes macros and clear definition of the terms like LED, peripheral instances, and switches among others. Below is a LED blink made using the BSP macros

The main()function in the code’s main.c should be updated using the piece of code below:

volatile int delay;

//Configure board specific pin muxing


//Initialize the UART terminal


PRINTF (“\r\nRunning the myProject project.\n”);

//Enable GPIO port for LED1


For (;;)



delay = 5000000;



delay = 5000000;

while(delay--); }

The above code is then uploaded to the Freedom board after the IDE is entered by clicking “Compiler”

Creating the Uploading Code

            A simple program is created to ensure all is well. When the IDE is entered, it presents the user with “Guide to mbed Online Compiler.” The user then clicks “New” after which the program is given a name and click Ok. The user is then presented with a basic “hello world” program blinking the blue LED within the RGB module. The delays are then adjusted according to the likings of the users after he clicks “Compile” in the toolbar. Assuming everything has gone well, the web browser will present the user with a .bin file downloaded to the default download directory. The .bin file is then copied to the mbed drive and reset button is pressed on the Freedom board. The blue LED now starts blinking (Meikle, 2015).

Moving Forward

There are some examples of code demonstrating how accelerometer, RGB LED, and touch are used. The map below shows the pins on the Freedom board with regard to the mbed IDE

Figure 4: Freedom Board Pins

All the blue pins such as PTxx can easily be referenced in the code. For instance, pulsing PTA13 on and off after every second, the code below is used (Young, 2015):

include “mbed.h”

digitalOut pulsepin(PTA13);

int main() {


pulsepin = 1;


pulsepin = 0;




The pin in the reference will be inserted within the DigitalOut assignment. Therefore, “pulsepin” refers to the PTA13.


            The Freedom board offers users a very cheap way of getting into the programming and microcontrollers and finally into the cloud. Users should not be worried by the IDE or the revisions of firmware. Additionally, they should not be worried by the installation of the software on the locked-down computers or the fact that they might lose the files. The paper has shown that it is indeed to use Freedom boards to easily log into the cloud which enables the data to be accessed.

Works Cited

Boxall, J. (2013). mbed and the Freescale FRDM-KL25Z development board. Retrieved from       Tronixstuff:       development-board/

IUT, S. (2015). Freescale freedom FRDM-K64F development platform. Retrieved from Element 14 Community:            frdm-k64f-development-platform-review

Marao, B. (2015). Freedom beginners guide. Retrieved from Element 14 Community:              beginners-guide

Meikle, C. (2015). Freescale Freedom FRDM-K64F development platform. Retrieved from          Element 14 Community:         frdm-k64f-development-platform-review

Styger, E. (2014). Freedom board with Adafruit ultimate GPS data logger shield. Retrieved from DZone:

Styger, E. (2014). IoT datalogger with ESP8266 Wi-Fi module and FRDM-KL25Z. Retrieved     from MCU on Eclipse:          with-esp8266-wifi-module-and-frdm-kl25z/

Young, D. (2015). Create your own cloud server on the Raspberry Pi 2. Retrieved from Element 14 Community:            pi/raspberrypi_projects/blog/2015/05/05/owncloud-v8-server-on-raspberry-pi-2-create-       your-own-dropbox

Published in Computer Science
Saturday, 05 November 2016 05:57

Research Paper on Google

Research Paper: Google



Course Instructor



Google is one of the global companies listed in the SEC and is based in Mountain View California, US. The company’s main focus is on the internet related services as well as products as search engines related activities, online advertising cloud computing as well as software development. The company was founded in September 1998 by Sergey Brin who is currently is a director along with Larry page, the CEO at the the standard University. Google’s headquarters are found in a campus known as “Googleplex” in Mountain View, California. Currently, Google has managed to extend and possess more than 70 offices all over the world across more than 40 countries (Google Inc, n.d). The companies international interest are enormous, with the best example being in 2014 when they extended their investment arm, Google Ventures to the city of London, with a preliminary capital of $100 million capital to start assessing for investment opportunities in Europe.

From this investment arm, Google has managed to open more than 5 investment ventures (Google Inc, n.d). In this assessment, there will be an evaluation of the financial, income statement, the balance sheet offers excellent insights into the company’s returns, with the best meant of assessing Google’s balance sheet being via the assessment of the company’s financial ratios.

The evaluation below is of Google’s (GOOG) 2014 yearend balance sheet as s means of assessing the financial as well as management strength.

The Liquidity Ratios

Through the use of Google’s quick and current ratio, it will be possible for us to assess the ability of the company to pay their liabilities. Google’s liquidity ratios encompass:

Liquidity ratios 2014 2013
Quick ratio 3.83 3.69
Current ratio 4.80 4.58

Source: Google Inc. (2014).

The assessment of the liquidity ratios follows that the higher the ratios, the more sturdy the company and in this case, it implies that Google is in a position to cover their current liabilities with their current assets. The current assets encompass those assets that can easily be changed into cash as the account receivables, cash as well as marketable securities. For the year 2014, the current ratio implies that for every $1 of their current liability, Google possesses $4.8 current assets, an indication that the company’s general liquidity is very good (Google Inc, 2014).

The Assessment of Google’s Efficiency Ratios

The assessment of these ratios will offer an indication of the manner in which Google’s uses their assets as well as liabilities, indicating the duration it takes to receive payment from customers, the duration the company takes to pay their bills as well as how effective they convert their fixed assets into sales revenue (Source: Google Inc. (2014).The assessment of Google’s efficiency ratios is as follows:

Efficiency ratios 2014 2013
Receivable turnover 6.86 7.09
Fixed asset turnover 3.27 4.22
Sales to net working capital 7.73 9.16
AP to sales 0.03 0.04
Days sales outstanding 56.73 54.80
Intangible % of BV 0.04 0.07

Source: Google Inc. (2014).

From this assessment, the underlying attributes encompass the assertion that the higher the receivables and turnover of fixed asset ratios, the more the sturdy the company. In this case, it is evident that Google can turn their receivables into cash. In the year 2014, the company collected their receivables approximately seven times every, which was slightly lower than the previous year but generally at a good pace. It is also evident that a higher fixed asset ratio is additionally preferable as it indicates that Google generates $3.27 in sales for every $1 they invest in fixed assets (Google Inc, 2014). The situation, however, indicates that the ratio has decreased slightly from what it was in the year 2013, in the same manner that is noted of the company’s sales to net working capital from the previous year. The lower accounts payable to sale, the days sales outstanding along with the days payable outstanding further indicate that there is a higher efficiency at Google. Although the company’s DSO is higher than those of 2013, there was an improvement in the DPOs, indicating that the company pays its bills (Google Inc, 2014).

The Strength and Profitability Ratios

The leverage and solvency ratios are vital measures relating to the levels of assets that are generated internally against what is provided by others in the form of debt. Additionally, the management or profitability strength is accessed via the return on equity assets and the asset ratios. The core ratios for Google include:

Strength ratios 2014 2013
Debt to equity 5% 6%
Debt to assets 4% 4.7%
Profitability ratios
Return on equity 15% 14%
Return on assets 12% 14%

Source: Source: Google Inc. (2014).

It follows that the lower the debt to equity, the better the company is and the assessment of Google leads to the realization that Google employs a lower proportion of debt that equity or assets in financing their assets and follows that the trend is better in 2014 than 2013 (Google Inc, 2014). The employment of the profitability ratios is to aid in the assessment of the management’s strength as well as how the company can manage to generate profit from the assets or equity used. Google’s return on equity for the same year has been marginally favorable kin 2014 compared to the situation in 2013 while their return on assets is slightly lower. In general, the assessment of Google’s balance sheet, as well as management strengths, indicates that the situation was better in 2014 that in the previous year.

Valuation of the Balance Sheet-Based

Making decisions on whether to buy or sell GOOG shares of is further influenced by the valuation of the company. The common appraisal multiples encompass the price to earnings (P/E) as well as the enterprise value to EBITDA inputs that come from the income statement. The balance sheet additionally offers insights into how attractive of a company’s stock chiefly derived from the cash and book value furthermore how it changes over time.

Valuation 2014 2013
Cash/share 93.72 86.65
BV/ share 152.10 128.85

Source: Google Inc. (2014).

The assessment of the cash value per share in provides the investor with insight into the company even without profits. In this assessment, it is evident that Google can invest in itself at a rate of $93 per share. The book worth per share of $152 indicates that at the end of the year 2014, the company was trading approximately 3.5 times per share book value.

Google Products and Services

The main premise that informs the delivery of products and services at Google encompasses the provision of a perfect search engine that has the capability to understand precisely what you mean furthermore give back accurately what you want. Google has enlarged their service, and product delivery includes products that are beyond the search (Claburn, 2011). Through the diverse technologies that Google has at their disposal in addressing the search needs as Chrome and Gmail, their objective has been in the ensuring that the users find it as easy as possible to find the information they need.

The implication of this assertion is that they have made the search smarter as well as faster ensuring that it understands specifically what one is searching. The main products that Google provides to their users include:

  1. The blogger

The invention of the Blogger by the company allowed the clients to self-publish. The invention is currently accessible to the users in more than 20 languages globally, making it the premier tools that people can own blogs (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014).  Google obtained Blogger's creator Pyra Labs in the year 2003, with the acquisition allowing for the entire platform to become free for the users.

  1. Google translate

Google translate is an additional product offered by the company that ensures the user access free translation supporting up to 64 languages. The translations through this product are instant and that the service can translate sentences, words, as well as web pages between any combinations of the 64 languages.

  1. Advertisement

Contrasting most of the other advertisers, the ads that are delivered via the Google's platform are helpful most of the time. When the users search for a product, the advertiser can serve you an ad. This service makes Google lots of money moreover, helps users.

  1. Chrome

The product was developed in the year 2008 and is one most favorite browser mainly due to its speed as well as simplicity. The browser is additionally very reliable; an attribute that allows users to sign in with their Google account on several computers and ensuring that one enjoys a similar experience.  As of May 2012, the product had approximately 3% universal usage share of web browsers, which made it the most extensively used web browser.

  1. YouTube

This product stands out as Google's best acquisitions. According to Reuters, "YouTube, which is Google Inc's video website, was streaming more than 4 billion online videos daily, which was a 25% augment in the precedent eight months. The product that was rolled out in February 2005, it makes it possible for billions of users to discover, watch moreover share originally-created videos.

  1. Android

Android is the additional product that Google offer their users and the launched Android by in the year 2007 is considered a direct competition to Apple's iPhone as well as the mobile operating system.  Android operates on the Linux software and is seen to offer the users with a dissimilar way of experiencing their mobile phones. In the opening quarter, 2012, there were 331 million Android users with more than 934,000 activations taking place daily

  1. Google maps

The introduction of Google maps by the company changed everything. The service debuted 2005 help millions of users not get lost, allowing them to travel around the world from the calmness of their homes.

  1. Gmail

The introduction of Gmail by Google changed the manner in which the world saw the email. The product offers the users unlimited email storage ensuring that they are never compelled to delete an email to create space; an attribute that had been unheard of previous to the introduction of the service. By the end of the start of 2012 Gmail had 350 million active users.

Google Competitor Analysis

Looking at Google’s website section, it is evident that the company is in competition with others players as the Internet pioneer moreover media company AOL, search innovator Yahoo, technology giant Microsoft, career, and business social networking site LinkedIn, among other companies (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014).  In the evaluation of the overall advertising revenue section, Google is seen to be in competition with Yahoo as well as AOL and the employment website operator Monster Worldwide. The additional competition that Google faces is from the online travel corporation Expedia, media multinational E.W. Scripps Company, media company Scripps Interactive, along with the online auctioneer eBay.

Microsoft introduced their search engine, Bing, in the year 2009 to offer direct competition with Google. Microsoft made huge investments in the promotion of Bing and managed to successfully manage to increase their market share within a comparatively short timeframe. Relying on the statistics supplied by comScore, the Microsoft sites had garnered a 20% share of all the U.S. desktop searches as of April 2015. In the same way, Google, operates, Bing makes money from the selling of online advertising, allowing customers to place ads together with both Bing and Yahoo search results.

Yahoo began as an online directory in 1994, and by the year 1998, it had become the most accepted starting point for web users. Yahoo is further known globally for their web portal that provides content on subjects as sports, music, finance, along with movies. Consistent with comScore, the sites owned by Yahoo have a 12% share of U.S. desktop searches by April 2015.

The main threat that is posed Facebook is associated with the socially powered search that draws from the company's wealth of data. The evidence that Facebook has more than 1.4 billion users in the year 2015 as well as a deep comprehension of their interests along with relationships, Facebook is becoming ingredients that can make a difficult search alternative.

In the year 2014, Google chairman confessed that their chief competitors are not Yahoo or Bing but Amazon. He supported his assertion was supported by saying that the shoppers bypass Google, asserting that approximately a third of people desiring to purchase something started on Amazon, which is more than two time the number who went straight to Google.

Comprehensive Capabilities

There is an assortment of skills as well as capabilities that have been instrumental to the success that Google as a company has been enjoying. Among these capabilities include the coordinated leadership group whereby the coordinated group leadership has been central to their success (McAfee, Brynjolfsson, Davenport, Tatil, & Barton, 2012). In this case, the leadership at Google has been described to function as a single unit as well as the effective team that has been charting the way forward for the company.

The commitment to the cutting edge technology through the possession of the smartest and dedicated teams is one of the reasons that the company has managed to enjoy the success they have exhibited in the industry. The creation of the real-time search, universal search as well as the instant makes the searching process for information on the web both more revealing as well convenient for the users (McAfee, Brynjolfsson, Davenport, Tatil, & Barton, 2012).

The wise expansion employed by the company is additionally a reason they have enjoyed the amount of success, with Google seen to have an eye for the new ventures as well as acquisitions that are outside the search engine market, focusing on the areas that generated some synergy within their core. This capability has allowed Google users to the convenience through drawing more than 4000 news sources (McAfee, Brynjolfsson, Davenport, Tatil, & Barton, 2012). 

Subtle marketing is the additional capability that Google enjoys and is seen in the fact that they have become adept in marketing themselves as a brand name. The features that are found on the Google’s homepage mostly just the letters on the word “Google” colorfully displaced.

Google’s Competitive Advantage

Google, owing to their innovation, size, in addition to market position, exhibits an assortment of competitive advantages. Although Google has numerous competitive advantages, Google’s competitive advantages can be classified into three chief areas that include the innovative services, infrastructure, as well as market share (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014). In the context of the infrastructure, Google possesses an exceedingly powerful infrastructure that cannot easily be simulated. In the same as Wal-Mart is identified for possessing a highly proficient supply chain infrastructure that has an enormous investment in equipment and plant assets that encompasses enormous warehouse facilities, high-tech inventory systems, and transport vehicles, Google possesses a huge technology infrastructure.

Innovative Services

The additional source of competitive advantage that Google enjoys is via their innovative services. Google enjoys more than 100 Google services encompassing the famous Google Search, Gmail, Google Finance, Blogger, Google Apps, Google Docs, as well as Google Chrome, among others. The immense value of Google’s services is found in the fact that Google has the capability to offer almost all their services at a zero cost to their users (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014). The fact the number of services and users, Google can offer an eye-catching advertising model and additionally make billions of dollars each year. Through the infrastructure Google possesses they are in a position to offer users with a huge range of services. Additionally, even on those occasion that the competition offers similar services, Google offers the users with the opportunity to enjoy a “one-stop-shop” for their computing and Internet and needs (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014). The attribute becomes hard for the competition to meet with the fact that the company continues to make innovations further ensure they retain the competitive edge. 

The Wide Assortment of Products & Services

Google’s tendency of unvaryingly trying to increase their portfolio of products as well as services is one of the strategies instrumental to their sustained competitive advantage. From the time Google was incorporated, it has acquired more than 100 companies as a strategy to expand their products and services, particularly in YouTube as well as Motorola Mobility. YouTube currently serves over 800 million distinctive visitors on a monthly in addition to possessing the leading market share of more than 40% of online video market (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014).  Google further encourages its staff to adopt their creativity as well as innovation in the daily practices as a strategy of contributing to the formation of new products and ideas.

The Basis That Google Has Employed In Exerting Their Global Dominance

The reliance on the components of the resource based view, Google has managed to realize sustained competitive advantage as well as global domination. The realization of the global dominance of Google has been the observation of the criteria whereby they are rare, valuable, and imperfectly imitable as well as non-sustainable (Bloodgood, 2014).

Regarding the rare resources, it follows that Google possesses a rare portfolio encompassing the patented technology and the improvement in the number of patents held especially with the acquisition of Motorola Mobility in 2013 (Bloodgood, 2014). Through this acquisition, Google has managed to get an additional 24,000 patents.

The Valuable resource as the additional tool Google has been using in their global domination follows the assertion that Google among the best search engines (Bloodgood, 2014). The search engines have been Google’s most important resources that drive advertisements, accounting for more than 98% if their $37.9 billion revenue.

The inimitable quality encompasses the fact that Google’s scale of their infrastructure cannot be easily imitable (Bloodgood, 2014). The fact that Google does not reveal their infrastructure but estimation indicates that they own huge assortment of data centers all over the world.

The substitutability is the last domination strategy follows their clean, minimalist user interface; the use of Google search engines presents the users with an unparalleled mode of retrieving information fast that is hard to substitute (Bloodgood, 2014). Through the reliance on these attributes, Google managed to develop their competitive advantage and the consequent global domination.


The mains strategies that Google needs to adopt in ensuring they enjoy guaranteed success include:

  1. There is additional investment in R&D to develop solutions that meet market demand
  2. There is an increase in the involvement of the employees in the organization productions as a way of promoting creativity and commitment
  3. Encouraging innovations through rewards to ensure there is an increase in solutions that and productivity
  4. Training the management on effective leadership skills as a way of ensuring the company enjoys a working environment that guarantees success
  5. Implementation of CSR strategies to increase the awareness of the company’s products and getting goodwill from investors and users

Executive Summary

The assessment of the financial situation of Google encompasses the assessment and observation of an assortment of indications. For instance, the assessment of the company’s balance sheets offers great insight into the company as it tells the investors of the company health as well as the efficiency of the management in the running of the business. Additionally, the balance sheet assessments offer the necessary input that can be used in the calculation of the diverse line of items on the income statement. Some of the valuable lessons that have been learned from the assessment of Google case include the fact that:

  1. Effective management is central to the success of a company operating in the global arena
  2. Ensuring the focus of the business is to the users is additionally a valuable lesson that ensures a business is fully focused on ensuring the needs of their customers are met, they greater retention
  3. Giving employees the freedom to fix anything that appears out of place is vital to the success of the company as it ensures the company is better regarding addressing the possible shortcoming that affects their productivity.
  4. When data drive the operations of a company, it becomes easy to make decisions as they are all founded on substantiated facts.


(Google Inc, n.d). (GOOG), Stock. Analysis on net. Fetching financial data. Retrieved 1 November 2016

(Google Inc, n.d). Company profile, Hoovers. Retrieved 1 November 2016. From:

Bloodgood, J. (2014). Enhancing the resource-based view of the firm: Increasing the role of awareness. Strategic Management Review8(1), 61-75.

Claburn, T. (2011). Google Founded By Sergey Brin, Larry Page... And Hubert Chang?!?. InformationWeek. Retrieved from!/d/d-id/1072309

Google Inc. (2014). Google Inc. Annual Reports. Retrieved from

Haucap, J., & Heimeshoff, U. (2014). Google, Facebook, Amazon, eBay: Is the Internet driving competition or market monopolization?. International Economics and Economic Policy11(1-2), 49-61.

McAfee, A., Brynjolfsson, E., Davenport, T. H., Patil, D. J., & Barton, D. (2012). Big data. The management revolution. Harvard Bus Rev90(10), 61-67.

Published in Information Technology
2014 Items filtered by date: November 2016.
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