Social Sciences

Social Sciences (18)

Wednesday, 22 March 2017 13:51

Social Media Analytic

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Social Media Analytic

Social media networks have allowed businesses to engage with key audience across all social media accounts. While it is imperative to engage all audiences consistently and quickly and create custom, targeted streams to see relevant conversations as they unfold, social media platforms can also help in building a client’s brand with compelling user-generated content. User-generated content can help boost the effectiveness of the branded content. It is possible to display social galleries on microsites, and also show them on any device or to add an interactive element to live events. However, how does the business measure the effectiveness of its online initiatives? Does business activities carried out online even matter? How many target users does the business reach? What links do audience like best? Measuring and analyzing the effectiveness of social media outreach, activities and initiatives are as important as engaging in the efforts. Luckily, the rise of social media has been accompanied by the development of tools to that have the capabilities of analyzing the impact of most of most social media activities. Social media analytics involves making use of social media websites to gather and analyze data important in making business decisions. This paper discusses the benefits of social media analytics and what it means to business.

Social media provides virtually instantaneous sentiments. Essentially, utilizing data generated from social media interactions enables immediate access to actionable insights. The failure by a business to take advantage of the emerging capabilities may affect its competitiveness. Data from social media is a potential goldmine of information on prospects, customers, products, and competitors. Before social media analytics, brands only participated in social media without utilizing available data. Social media has moved from a general communication tool to a valuable tool with a considerable impact on the competitiveness of the business. Businesses no longer ignore the resulting data. Today, more businesses are capitalizing on the capabilities of social media analytics. Essentially, utilizing data generated through different social media interactions enables businesses to tap into a treasure that results from products, customers, and competitors (Lawrence et al., 2010).

For marketing professionals, social media analytics tools are the important building business online presence or improving its online reach online. Some analytic tools have numerous functions that are integrated into one tool. Manifold tabs provide a general look at popular posts, a display of the photos on feed, and a range of statistics including post history, engagement rate, and post-distribution. Social media analytics can help markets determine to what extent social media audiences are sharing its content as well as what content they are sharing. Creating content that is interesting and relevant to target audience helps the business spread its message and increase marketing reach. Paying close attention different types of content helps the businesses develop messages that audiences are more likely to connect with and share. Additionally, individual tend, to be honest on social media. By monitoring for mentions, the business can learn can learn what customers really say about the business (Zeng, et al., 2010)..

A business gains more insight into how people feel about its products and services and learn where improvements may be made. Thus, social media analytics makes it possible for a business to effectively engage with its audience. It also helps the business know who its audiences are and what they like. Businesses can learn what type of content and social networks businesses prefer. For instance, a business can determine if it prefers to share videos, images or infographics. On different sites, a business can uncover their preferences through their use keywords or hashtags in their posts. For example, the photo-based social network has taken the social media platform by storm with millions of users and photos uploaded on a daily basis. Just as with other social media networks, businesses can use these platforms to make a great impact on social media presence (Phillips, 2013)

Businesses also get access to real-time data. Feedback from social media platform is virtually immediate compared to other commonly used data sources such as surveys, customer telephone, point-of-sale and transaction reports that are time delayed. Businesses can take advantage of the real-time data provided by social media platforms to determine the success of services, products, and launches. Its immediacy provides feedback into existing business initiatives that help adapt and fine-tune current offerings, or to the planning process. There are different social media tools that can be used to form in-depth analytics. They are authentic and flexible tools for social media users that have statistics and contest suggestions. They help users get information on their comment rate and like rate as well as the engagement. This way, it becomes easier to follow and monitor the impact of influencers. Analytic tools may also provide suggestions on how to improve the reach. Other analytic tools may provide a scheduler that can be used through the mobile app or on any browser. These apps may allow the user to post directly as well as enable the user to manage the frequency of their posting. The benefits of using different social media analytic tools are that they provide more outstanding capabilities that provide a concise view of not only the user's social media account but also other user’s accounts (Leskovec, 2011).

The use of social media analytics helps businesses the capability to have highly targeted messages as well as data accuracy. In combination with the real time nature of responses, the accuracy, and relevancy of the data is likely to be high. Adopting the right social media strategy can help the business improve traffic and ultimately influence the buying decisions of others. And, while it’s true that businesses struggle to fit social media users into a demographic, adopting the right media strategy and tactics can help the business attain a competitive edge (Phillips, 2013).
What it means to business
Social media analytics tools provide diverse types of features for the business. These features are valuable to the business in various ways.
Competitive benchmarking
First, the business can competitively benchmark. Various parties in the business have the ability to view profile and content information for competitors’ accounts. This makes it easier to view what competitors are posting, their fan base, engagement with the different audience, when they’re posting, and response to their content.
Centralized Analytics
Social media provides businesses with a single place to see and compare metrics and statistics. Media analytics tools typically provide a range of metrics to help return on investment and track performance.

Influencer identification
Businesses can easily identify influencers who share their content by monitoring a list of accounts or individuals that engage with business content online. This way, a business can form establish relationships and generate brand awareness. A business may acquire significant influence as it has a considerable number of followers. Without any established following or audience, there is a lot of work to do to get the brand where it needs to be. Influencers and amplifiers are the individuals and the companies that carry weight, and they should be a priority in online business initiatives. Connecting with target audience comes down establishing strategic and beneficial relationships with the amplifiers.

Social media analytics allow businesses to track related customer interactions. Such may allow businesses to have metrics and data in areas that allow businesses to track and optimize their social activities. Businesses could use the social media analytics to establish how to target customers, influencers and amplifiers within a particular industry. Amplifiers are significant in keeping the conversation flowing and enhancing interactions with conventional online mainstream media and corporate media. Businesses gain the capacity to go outside the regular confines of looking at their target audience. Every market has a demographic of customer that a brand desires to reach.

Social media analytics have custom or pre-made dashboards that can easily keep tabs on the different social media accounts, metrics that matter and competitors.
Social media provide exportable reports and data along with email delivery and scheduling that allow businesses to keep partners, managers and businesses up to date and plugged-in and on social media performance and activities (Stieglitz et al., 2014).
Social media has moved from a general communication tool to a valuable tool with a considerable impact on the competitiveness of the business. Through social media analytics, businesses can actively engage all audiences consistently and quickly and create custom, targeted streams to see relevant conversations as they unfold, social media platforms can also help in building a client’s brand with compelling user-generated content

Lawrence, R., Melville, P., Perlich, C., Sindhwani, V., Meliksetian, S., Hsueh, P. Y., & Liu, Y. (2010). Social media analytics. Marketing & Social Media.
Leskovec, J. (2011, August). Social media analytics. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGKDD International Conference Tutorials (p. 1). ACM.
Phillips, J.(2013) Social Media AnalyticsWin with Advanced Business Analytics: Creating Business Value from Your Data, 247-269.
Stieglitz, S., Dang-Xuan, L., Bruns, A., & Neuberger, C. (2014). Social media analytics. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 6(2), 89-96.
Zeng, D., Chen, H., Lusch, R., & Li, S. H. (2010). Social media analytics and intelligence. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 25(6), 13-16.

Wednesday, 22 March 2017 13:44

Texting and vehicle accidents

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Texting and vehicle accidents

From the arrival of the mobile phone cellular devices have consequently become a necessity in almost all the spheres of life. With the elementary school going children, senior citizens as well as all the people about owning mobile phones and the recent cultural shift that has taken place making people overly dependent on mobile phones. The consequent emergence of new technologies encompassing the smaller as well, the more mobile gadgets and phones that are capable of accessing the email has led to an explosion in the use of cell phones.
The omnipresence nature of the smartphones, as well as the issue of text messaging, offers an assortment of the ways in which a driver is distracted as along with the inattentiveness with numerous studies carrying out numerous efforts to address the issue. The fact that the human being is social creatures and implies that they normally survive on the interactions they have with those around then (Abouk & Adams, 2013). This yearning be connected to other people tends to be disruptive and some situations that do not accommodate the distractions. There is numerous occasion that the mobile users abuse the needed to be connected to others and push what can be the socially acceptable behavior and resultantly cause destruction as well disrespect to those around their physical setting.
The relationships that are developed as well as maintained through the mobile and smartphone tend to be the priority although the attributes that are ignored and sacrificed as we try to maintain these relationships lead to very costly situations. The issue of driving, just the mobile telephony permits the human being to maintain the connection with other people, objects, places as well as events. Automobiles allow people to travel for long distances and also allowing them the freedom to get way from the monotony that is brought to life. The underlying issue, however, is the fact that the manufacturers of the automobiles never planned that there will be a mobile phone screen with the driver (Hosking, Young & Regan, 2006). While a peaceful drive makes it possible for a driver to take in the beautiful surroundings while also being in control of the car, a mobile phone overcomes the rationale of driving. The mobile phone, it sucks the driver’s mind into the phone, vanishing for moments at a time, and then sporadically returning to the road. The variations inattentiveness have the extremely high potentials of removing the driver from the car. Apparently, the penalty for this behavior can lead to devastating outcomes, for both the driver as well as anyone in his or her path.
The assertion that drivers are likely to get into accidents while texting on their phones strikes most people as an obvious fact in that it is one of the those issues one should see coming. The unremitting influx of information, irrespective of how significant or inconsequential, has the ability to overwhelm the brain to the summit that information is not effectively processed. Even one negligible distraction can be enough to interfere with the driver while on the road (University of Utah, 2013). Studies carried out by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute presents the suggestion that text messaging specifically was connected with the highest threat of all cell phone-related accidents. Specifically, the research by VTTI’s demonstrated that a driver texting while driving resulted in a crash and other cases near crash experience 23 times more likely than the situation when one is driving without a phone (Blanke, 2010). Additionally, the research established that text messaging tend to make drivers take their eyes off the road for an average duration of 4.6 seconds over a 6-second gap, which was identified to be the longest interval of time for any cell phone-related accident.

The study is an attempt to assess the relationship that exists between the subject of texting and whether it has a direct relationship with the accidents that are caused by the driving on the wheel.
The research question is thus going to be:
• Does texting while driving contribute to the involvement of a driver in road accidents?
• The research hypothesis is going to be that texting while driving contributes to road accidents.
• The null hypothesis, on the other hand, is going to be text while driving does not cause road accidents.
Present mobile phones have become the attraction through which people are managing their communication networks. Additionally, users are able to access diverse functionalities like e-mail, audio solutions, photography, games, along with other applications that have endless. The continued popularity of mobile phones along with the recent, smartphones, contribute to the promotion of, people’s dependence on the devices as a mode of constant communication moreover connection continues to augment, as well. In the recent time, the users have been able to place furthermore take calls and send or receive text messages (Affleck, 2002). The innovatory technology has stunned the roots of our being, and in recent times, has transitioned from shifted from a luxury gadget to an absolute necessity. It is not practicable to choose out of possessing a mobile phone. The Cell phones have encroached on a huge section of the world’s population with the purpose of linking more people, ensuring that their lives are considerably easier, consequently permitting for additional tasks to be accomplished, irrespective of whether they are for personal or professional grounds. An investigation by the Pew Research Center concluded that roughly 90% of all American adults own a cell phone while over 58% possess a smartphone (Bellin, 2013).

Figure 1: Mobile ownership in America between the year 2004 and 2013.
The use of the automobile along with its numerous positive impacts has additionally introduced a supplementary and somewhat ill-fated route to death. The freedom that comes with driving comes at reasonably a heavy cost. The additional attribute is that it does not only come down to the negligent drivers only as the individuals who pay the cost for their negligence. Innocent passengers, motorists, bystanders as well as pedestrians, are all becoming vulnerable furthermore constitute part of the critical equation (AAMI, 2010). The 2012 Fatality Assessment Reporting System that was released by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration indicated that there was an increase in highway deaths to 33,561 in the year 2012. It was an increase of 1,082 fatalities from the number recorded in the year 2011. The U.S. Transportation Secretary commented on these statistics arguing that the Highway deaths are claiming more than 30,000 lives every year, and although substantial progress has been realized over the past 50 years, it is imperative that there are more interventions to be put in place (Blueprint For Ending Distracted Driving, 2012).
Any individual who tries to use a mobile phone while driving is at amplified risk of being involved in a serious crash. It is additionally evident that the young drivers are predominantly at risk since the population has superior incidences of driving while using a mobile phone. The 2010 survey by AAMI specified that 61% of drivers who are aged between 18 and 24 years confessed that they had either sent or received a text while they were driving in comparison to 32% of drivers who are aged over 25 years (Nemme & White, 2010). Additionally, evidence reveals that undertaking other tasks while driving, for instance using a mobile phone, leads to greater tribulations for the inexperienced drivers who possess a higher crash risk. Research further indicate that older drivers find it complicated to perform two tasks concurrently and with the main issue being that there is the impairment to their response times.
It is thus evident that, texting while driving appears to be convincingly common and extensively dangerous. The additional issue of lack of the uniform ban in the US is disturbing. Current statistics’ indicate that it is only thirty states; counting Tennessee, that have developed legislations prohibiting texting while driving. Most of the studies, inclusive of the above mentioned one by the VTTI, have clearly confirmed that the use of cell phone compromises was driving performance via escalating the driver’s insensitivity, thus extensively escalating the risk of motor vehicle crashes (VicRoads, 2011).
The statistics that attempt to illustrate the dangers related to the issue of cell phone use while driving are absolutely astonishing. Statistics indicate that at any given time during the day, around 660,000 drivers try using their phones while behind the wheel of an automobile. Explicitly within the US, whereby virtually all those who drive a vehicle additionally own and consequently operate a mobile phone, there are an unparalleled number of automobile accidents that occur on an annual basis involving the cellular devices. Through the use of the study by California Department of Motor Vehicles, it follows that driving performance is significantly compromised and that the intensity of disruption increases when the drivers are heavily engaged in the cell phone. Additionally, the use of hands-free devices fails to lower the distraction levels of the driver (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006). In this case, the percentage of vehicle crashes along with near-crashes as a result of texting is just as matching to the percentage that is credited to talking.
The list enumerated below offers presents some of the most conspicuous figures that were indicating how widespread furthermore deadly texting while driving is:
• In the year 2011, least 23% of automobile collisions were directly linked to the use of cell phones, which approximately translates to 1.3 million crashes
• The least amount of time that a driver's attention is taken away from the road while one is texting while driving is just 5 seconds
• That the attribute of texting led to a crash being 23 times more likely to occur
• The dialing attribute, on the other hand, increases the risk of crash by more than 2.8X
• Listening or talking additionally increases the likelihood of a crash by 1.3X
• Trying to reaching for the mobile device raises the likelihood of a crash by 1.4X
• In the case of the teenage population available data indicate that they have the greatest temptations in that:
• The driving population that is between 18 and 20 years have a 13% greater likelihood of being involved in car wrecks, that admitted to talking or texting on their mobile devices at the time the crash occurred
• Additionally, the statistics reveal that over 82% of Americans age population that is aged between 16 and 17 confirm that they own cell phones
• 34% of this population affirm that they have texted while driving
• 52%, on the other hand, say that they have talked on a cell phone while driving
The study adopts correlation in assessing whether a relationship exists between texting while driving and causation of motor vehicle accidents. In the use of correlation, the rationale will additionally encompass the assessment of the strength of the relationship that is prevalent between texting and the motor vehicle accidents.
The null hypothesis in our study encompasses the assertion the assertion that texting does not have a relationship with the occurrence of accidents and that any relationship that exists is purely by change.
The research hypothesis for our study, on the other hand, is that the texting does have an impact on the occurrence of the accidents in that it promotes the occurrence and that the influence is of the nonrandom cause. In using correlation to answer whether we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis encompasses the assessment of the correlation coefficient. If the correlation coefficient is not zero, we shall reject the null hypothesis and consequently accept the research hypothesis.
The independent variable in the study is texting while independent variable is vehicle accidents. In this assessment, a correlation coefficient or +1 or -1 indicates that our variables have a relationship positively or negatively respectively while a correlation coefficient of 0 will indicate that the variables do not have a relationship.
One of the most fundamental issues addressed in this study is the fact that mobile phones play a huge role in the life of a human being. In order to address the expansive nature o the issue of people texting while driving, it is imperative that all the stakeholders join hands in developing solutions to be implemented and promptly. The issue comes down to mobile phone users, drivers, automobile manufacturers, government, mobile phone engineers, as well as everyone else addressing the matter as a serious issue and actively working to eradicate texting from the driving scene. It is not possible to realize social change unless a counter-cultural progress inherits sufficient following to commence progress (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006).
What we need to realize is the fact that our mentality has to change now. Texting while driving may not be avoided at all costs but it is imperative that we make a choice on stopping to engage in the vice whenever we are on the road. It is necessary that we realize a healthy balance or else our plastic brains will keep on being distracted and consequently causing more serious accidents. On a general note, people need to take responsibility and make intensive efforts towards ensuring that we abstain from texting while driving (Baumann, Rosler, & Krems, 2007). Additionally, it is imperative that Law enforcement needs to continue patrolling our roads as well as highway platforms to aid in deterring furthermore prevent drivers from partaking of the vice. The Mobile phone designers along with the Car manufacturers are game changers, as they hold the tools appropriate to the organization of a large-scale technological revolution that will ensure the fatalities as a result of the vice reduce.
It is normally wise to carry a mobile phone in the event one is involved in an emergency. The best recommendation regarding engaging in texting while driving is in delay making and sending text messages until one has stopped driving. If it is imperative that one has to text other while driving, it is imperative that you pull over safely and consequently park your car, and then send and reply all your texts. One should also make use of the voicemail service and return all calls when one reaches their destination. It is additionally necessary that one plans breaks in your trip to contact friends and family and additionally advise them not to call or text when you know you will be driving. It is imperative that one never reads or sends text messages while still driving (White, Walsh, Hyde, & Watson, 2010). Although it is legal to make as well as receive mobile phone calls via the use of the hands-free kit, it is appropriate to remember that it places the driver along with passengers at risk. The use of a hands-free kit compromises the level of physical as well as visual interruption to the driver, with the attribute of cognitive distraction remaining very high, with the consequent likelihood of causing accidents.

AAMI (2010). AAMI young driver's annual road safety index: AAMI, Melbourne. Retrieved 27 September 2012, from default/files/fm/news/2010- AAMI-Young-Drivers-Index.pdf
Abouk, R. & Adams, S. (2013). Texting Bans and Fatal Accidents on Roadways: Do They Work? Or Do Drivers Just React to Announcements of Bans? American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. Retrieved from
Affleck, C. (2002) The Rewired Generation: Stepping into the Gap that is the Digital Divide. YOUTHFOCUS. Retrieved from cus.pdf
Atchley, P. & Warden, A.C. (2012). The need of young adults to text now: Using delay discounting to assess informational choice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(4), 229-234. Retrieved from
Baumann, M.R.K., Rosler, D., & Krems, J.F. (2007). Situation Awareness and Secondary Task Performance While Driving. HCI. Retrieved from mann,%20Roesler%20&%20Krems,%202007.PDF
Bellin, J. (2013, August 29). Be Carefu Who You Text (or Call): Early Dispathes from a New World of Text Messaging Evidence. Retrieved from
Blanke, D. (2010). The Rise of the Automobile. National History Education Clearinghouse. Retrieved from
Blueprint For Ending Distracted Driving. (2012). NHTSA. Retrieved from 060712-v5-Opt1-Web-tag.pdf
Hosking, S. G., Young, K. L., & Regan, M. A. (2006). The effects of text messaging on young novice driver performance. Monash University Accident Research Centre, Report No. 246. Retrieved 27 September 2012, from muarc/reports/muarc246.pdf
Klauer, S.G., Dingus, T.A., Neale, V.L., Sudweeks, J.D., & Ramsey, D.J. (2006). The impact of driver inattention on near crash/crash risk: An analysis using the 100-car Naturalistic Driving Study data. (Report No. DOT HS 810 594). Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Nemme, H. & White, K.M. (2010). Texting while driving: Psychosocial influences on young people’s texting intentions and behaviour. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(4), 1257-1265.
Texting and Distracted Driving Infographic. (2012). Don’t Text and Drive. Retrieved from
University of Utah. (2013). Hands-free talking and texting are unsafe for drivers, study shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from
VicRoads. (2011). Driving and mobile phones: A dangerous mix. Fact sheet. Melbourne: State Government of Victoria.
White, K.M., Walsh, S.P., Hyde, M.K., & Watson, B.C (2010). Mobile phone use while driving: An investigation of the beliefs influencing drivers’ hands-free and hand-held mobile phone use. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13, 9-20.

Wednesday, 11 May 2016 15:38

Criminal Justice Leadership

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  • Introduction
  • Problem Statement
  • Criminal Justice and Organizational Culture
  • Behavioral Theory and Criminal Justice System Leadership
  • Criminal Justice Leadership and Planning
  • Criminal Justice leadership and Community Relations
  • Conclusion
  • References


            Leadership remains as one of the success determining factors when in all organization.  Particularly in state owned organizations, poor leadership do not only reduces public confidence but also reduces service delivery. Criminal justice system remains one of the institutions whose success gets influenced by leadership types.  The presence of strategic leadership in the justice system enhances service delivery and at the same time reduces chances of justice miscarriage. Policy making and implementation are therefore obliged to work on robust leadership in the criminal justice system to promote efficiency.

Problem Statement

            Criticisms continue to be directed towards criminal Justice System continues to in society.  The situation is mainly factored by the delay of justice dispensation, miscarriage of justice as well as poor resource management.  This situation always raises a question among citizens as to who is responsible and what the leadership does to avoid the same trend.  As a result, leadership in criminal justice system needs to develop appropriate and effective ways to help in improving their performance in policies and criminal justice administration. Leadership approach always determines the system culture which in the end exerts an effect on performance. Supportive leadership style remains to good effect on performance in much organization (Silvestri, 2006). Similarly, criminal justice system needs to impress this style of leadership to help administer justice inefficient way. Supportive, instrumental and collaborative leadership dimensions amount to effective leadership which does influence not only performance but also organizational culture. Justice administration demands effective leadership and therefore strong leadership enhances justice dispensation and limits delays and miscarriage.

Criminal Justice and Organizational Culture

            The fact that the Criminal justice system is a public institution forces it to come up with ways that can attract trust from the public. Leadership has an obligation to develop a culture that is service-oriented weather in hardships or comfort. All people given the mandate to run the criminal justice system must always aim at meeting the needs of citizens and maintaining the good image of the institution (Jennings, Schreck, Sturtz, & Mahoney, 2008). Attaining this demands   effective leadership which can bring on board all stakeholders that make up the system. All agents of criminal justice need to have a kind of leadership that promote collaboration and promotes efficiency particularly I addressing critical issues in the criminal justice system. The culture of criminal justice system needs to reflect supportive leadership, collaboration, teamwork, efficiency and focus.

            Criminal justice administration requires leaders who can positively influence service delivery from inside. Supportive leadership enhances healthy relationships between those in ranks and   junior officers.  This leadership has the capacity to promote   healthy working environment in the criminal justice system. This leadership style improves performance in justice administration as well as job satisfaction among workers in the criminal justice system.  As a matter of fact, many profit oriented organization have continued to impress this culture (Jones-Burbridge, 2012). It is therefore effective in all agencies that administer justice. Supportive leadership in criminal justice system enhances functionality from the fact that it provides healthy structures for consultation and to better the output.

            Possessing supportive leadership in the criminal justice system translates to effective leadership which characterizes many organizations.  Criminal justice system therefore, needs to impress this leadership from the fact that its employees have to work in collaboration to dispense justice. The agents of criminal justice system need to collaborate with other stakeholders to deliver justice to the citizens.  In achieving this, there must be a kind of leadership that supports these linkages. Collaboration in justice dispensation eliminates conflicts among agencies and promotes making a decision from all round dimension (Wright, 1999). With supportive leadership,   efficiency, transparency gets achieved in justice processes.

            Instrumental leaders promote goal-oriented culture.  Criminal justice leadership similarly need team building. In the process of justice administration, instrumental leadership remains essential (Casimir, 2010). Leaders in the criminal justice system need to implement teamwork as a way of building capacity among partners to attain the objectives to justice demand. Team building and collaboration remains an important tool in skill acquisition which remains a component that determines service delivery.

            Effective leadership in criminal justice system remains a key demand that helps in   improving performance (Mannion, 2009).  The reason is that organizational culture  always revolve  around  leadership abilities and  participation in activities  that  have direct impact on many people    Effective leadership affect culture  which similar  determine  organization’s performance. In criminal justice system, effective leadership needs to be that which supports employees and always ready to collaborate with important actors.

            Cultural aspects such as innovation, stability, people orientation, risk taking, attention to detail, team orientation and assertiveness motivate employees in criminal justice system.  This culture is vital in criminal justice agencies from the fact that they are key   factors that impact   performance and effectiveness in service delivery (Mohr, 2015). Criminal justice leadership must   be flexible to deal with many dynamics and   real needs of citizens. These leadership styles remain very crucial in delivering quality service in criminal justice.

Behavioral Theory and Criminal Justice System Leadership

            Behavioral theory plays a critical role in Criminal Justice from the fact that it assists in manipulating stakeholders to efficiently dispense justice. Criminal justice system leadership has the obligation to get molded on transformational theory, transactional theory, and contingency theory (Wright, 1999).In the leadership of criminal justice system, contingency theory demands the unification of leadership style to a situation that is present. As a result, this theory proposes interlinking different leadership styles to implementers and on organizational aims(Mannion, 2009). When focused on the criminal justice system, the theory presents dimensions which include situational theory and path-goal theory. Path -goal theory affirms that strategic leaders must have the capacity to assist their teams to reach personal goals. Focusing on the criminal justice system, leadership needs to assist junior officers in all agencies of criminal justice to reach their target goals through motivation. Criminal justice leadership can achieve this through allocating responsibilities based on officer’s skills, expertise as well as abilities.  Leadership in criminal justice system must have the capacity to offer guidance, directions, counseling and incentives to its staff. On the other hand, the situational theory is where leaders need to have the capacity to alter leadership techniques and approaches s in situations that are complex and demand to reason. The situational theory asserts that complex situations need leaders who can work with what is available in a strategic way (Wright, 1999). For instance, leaders need in criminal justice system must have the ability alter their leadership styles on abilities of their subjects.

            On the other hand, transactional theory asserts that there must be a contract form in leadership where two parties get bound by responsibility demands   prior getting assigned. Workers in criminal justice system need to be bound by the orders from leadership and carry out responsibilities and reward to come after work accomplishment. In criminal justice system, this  leadership  style need to  apply  from the fact that  responsibilities  involves  order taking and requesting  private investigators services  in some  responsibilities(Mannion, 2009).  Leadership should also have an ability to recognize goo work from junior employees.  This can be done through recommending the officer or helping the officer to get other incentives from the government like pay increase.

            Leaders in the criminal justice system should also follow transformational theory. Transformational leaders have the ability to engage low ranked officers, create trust and enhance links to effect motivation, morality as well as service delivery. Leadership in criminal justice system  have an obligation to emphasize on juniors officers  and  facilitate  them to  reach  their  potentials and  up their  output (Lok & Crawford, 1999). Transformational leaders in the criminal justice system are also visionary leaders, and when they lead the system, it can come service delivery knit. Since criminal justice system get faced with much dynamism, it is vital for the system to have visionary leaders who can work on yesterday to handle today and use today to determine tomorrow.

Criminal Justice Leadership and Planning

            Planning remains a critical undertaking in preparing for criminal justice tomorrow. Criminal justice leadership  must have the ability to come up with  strategic plans to specify  activities to  get performed different actors ,  they way  to get  performed, time limits as well as resources .  Criminal justice leaders must have the ability to predict the future to prescribe course of actions to meet the objectives (Wright, 1999). Planning in criminal justice system demands strategic leaders. The process   remains integrated with different plans. This involves   strategic planning, operational planning and results management.

            Criminal justice leadership must have a strategic plan which ensures that the system responds to dynamism in the environment (Cornelius & Dively, 2008). Criminal justice system leaders must be able to describe current status; specify where to go and the way to get there. Effective leadership must remain informed in devising an effective strategic plan that positively influences the future criminal justice system. Strategic planning is important to criminal justice from the fact that it helps the actors to think strategically. It gives a vision and also clarifies the direction for future. Additionally, it helps effectively handle changes in the environment. The strategic plan is also vital to criminal justice system since it promotes teamwork and solves major organizational issues (Lok & Crawford, 1999). It also improves performance, efficiency as well as productivity. Criminal justice leadership must take the initial step in strategic planning by developing of the initial agreement. The agreement must have the planned purpose, steps to take and resources to get used.  It can then identify and clarify external mandates on the criminal justice system. Most of these steps are available in the legislation for public organizations.  Leaders must also carry out stakeholders’ analysis to incorporate views in the plan so that it can get affected collaboratively. Criminal justice leadership must also assess internal as well as external environment to determine the systems’ strengths, weaknesses, threats as well as opportunities. This evaluation remains vital in all organizations which dispense criminal justice. It assists criminal justice systems to devise effective as well as realistic strategies (Wright, 1999).  Strategic issues identification gets followed by developments of strategy for the system.  Similarly, criminal justice leaders must ensure that the plan describes the system in the future.

Criminal Justice Leadership and Community Relations

            Criminal justice leaders must also have the ability to promote public evaluation of criminal justice system. The reason is that many factors have the ability to influence public confidence as well as satisfaction with agencies of criminal justice (Lok & Crawford, 1999).  For instance, personal attributes including race, socioeconomic status, age as well as neighborhood factors influences public confidence on police officers. On race and criminal justice, for instance, research revealed that black minorities always provide less favorable police conduct rating when compared to white citizens. The research remains consistent with other research carried out in Australia. It, therefore, presents a volatile relationship characterizing the police and the ethnic minority citizens. Criminal justice leadership must be aware of this to ensure they devise ways to improve the situation (Wright, 1999). When it comes to Age and criminal justice, young individuals tend to present more contact with police as compared to older individuals (Davis, Cronley, Madden & Kim, 2014). They are hence, likely to become victims of violent offenses than older people. The prevalent bad contacts easily result in lower ratings on police by younger people.  This trend is critical in planning fro initiatives that can reduce crime. When it comes to socioeconomic status and criminal justice, high socioeconomic status individuals tend to offer support easily to the police and likely to rate police officers positively  as compared to those in lower socioeconomic status.  Hence, it is believed that police officers tend to remain differential to middle as well as high-class people to get positive evaluations from particular society members (Sarver & Miller, 2014). Criminal justice leadership must have the capacity to understand this so that the relationship between the criminal justice system and the community is strengthened (Mannion, 2009). When criminal justice leadership examines demographic differences in the opinions, it provides them with vital information how personal attributes affects criminal justice system rating. The police rating by citizens always bases on demographic traits among other things. People’s contact with criminal justice agencies significantly influences evaluation.


            Effective leadership remains an essential aspect to achieve high performance as well as ratings in the criminal justice system. Citizen ratings depend on demographic issues and   contact frequency between individuals and the criminal justice system. Hence, procedural justice determined by the type of leadership determines how the police and the entire criminal justice system get rated. Similarly criminal judicial system must always have a type of leadership that impresses cooperation and performance. Alignment of behavioral theory in criminal justice leadership can assist to keep the concentration on service delivery and develop other players. The criminal justice system must have visionary leaders who can pursue stakeholders to enhance goal achievement. Good leaders in criminal justice system must also portray strategic resource management and eliminate discriminatory in service delivery. To conclude, supportive and strategic leadership in criminal justice is a constituent that can enhance operations. The contrary is also true in that poor leadership negatively affects service which is justice miscarriage.


Casimir, G. (2010): Combinative aspects of leadership style and the interaction between    leadership behaviors. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31 (6), 501-517.

Cornelius, L., & Dively, C. (2008): Leading Into Tomorrow: Developing Leaders for The Challenges Ahead. Corrections Today, 70(4), 66-69.

Davis, J., Cronley, C., Maden, E. E., & Kim, Y. K. (2014): Service-learning Use in Criminal         Justice Education. Journal of Criminal Justice, 25(2), 157-174.   doi:10.180/10511253.2014.882367

Jennings, W. G., Schrick, C. J., Sturtz, M., & Mahoney, M. (2008): Exploring the Scholarly          Output of Academic Organization Leaders in Criminology and Criminal Justice: A     Research Note on Publication Productivity. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 19(3),   404-416. Doi: 10.1080/10511250802476228

Jones-Burbridge, J. A. (2012): SERVANT Leadership. Corrections Today, 73(6), 45-47.

Lok, P & Crawford, J. (1999): The relationship between commitment and organizational culture, subculture, leadership style and job satisfaction in organizational change and    development. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 20(7), 365-373.

Mannion, K. (2009): Leadership for success. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,     30 (7), 639-648.

Mohr, G. C. (2015): Reforming the Criminal Justice System. Corrections Today, 77(6), 46 50

Sarver, M. B., & Miller, H. (2014): Police chief leadership: styles and effectiveness. Policing,        37(1), 126-143. Doi: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2013-0028

Silvestri, M. (2006): ‘Doing time’: Becoming a police leader. International Journal Of Police         Science & Management, 8(4), 266-281.

Wright, K. N. (1999): Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies.       Criminal Justice Ethics, 18(2), 2.

Sunday, 10 April 2016 01:03

Workplace boredom

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Workplace boredom



Course title:



Boredom is widespread and is even on the rise in the recent years. In a 2004 survey of British employees, the researcher found that one-third of employees reported being bored at work for the most of the day while a half always reported or often feeling bored at work. Boredom is something that affects the high-performing employees. According to Annilee (2007), the modern workplaces are becoming more boring, and boredom is the second most commonly hidden workplace emotion after anger. In this discussion, the focus is to provide my experience with workplace boredom, determine if boredom should be a key priority for organizational leaders, and who is responsible for reducing workplace boredom.

Workplace boredom

In the Workplace, I believe that boredom depends on the person when it comes to your actually job duties. Boredom is costly and detrimental to the organization. It refers to an unpleasant transient affective state where an individual feels a pervasive lack of interest in and also difficulty in concentrating on the current activity. The negative and dissatisfying emotional state as a result of boredom usually moves employees away from the work at hand and require more time and effort to get the job accomplished (Jex & Mael 2015).

I have plenty to do at my current job and have no problem with boredom. I truly believe in keeping busy and a self-starter, so I have no problem with keeping myself occupied. I do not like to be micro-manage and in case the job I am doing is not interesting, I do not find myself working there too long. I like working in a place where I enjoy working and in an environment that is accommodating. I can say I have worked for interesting organizations where I have the chance of planning my day in a way that I will get the job was done and make deadlines. In the article by Jex and Mael (2015) it provides a discussion of work boredom and its visible signs, which are restlessness, finding yourself doodling, or becoming fidgeting and sighing. The only time I may get bored in the workplace is when I am in a meeting that is not productive and not providing me with value information to get the job done. Meetings usually facilitate communication and resolve procedural issues. However, they can also be a waste of time, and a leader can call for a meeting because he is not feeling needed, or because he/she is under pressure and he wants everyone else to feel it too.

For instance, when I am in training, I might find myself doodling during the training process when all the trainer does is talk and not engage the members in the training class. In my personal experience, it is very rare to find me bored when in the workplace because I know how to manage my time wisely to get the job done and ensure that I am always working on something that I enjoy doing. During training, I usually feel that the process should allow members to engage in the training whereby it should be hands-on. The training should not only be about talking, but there are some skills that people can learn through hands-on practice. Such a practice helps to avoid boredom in the workplace and also allows for greater retention.

Boredom and key priority for organizational leaders

The workplace boredom tends to be a real threat that is creeping up on employees. Boredom leads to larger issues in the workplace that affect the entire teams and companies. According to Loukidou, Loan-Clarke, and Daniels (2009) feeling bored can lead to sabotage, disengagement, withdrawal, and abuse of other members and intentional failure. Thus, it will result in decreased productivity. I believe that boredom should be a major priority for organizational leaders. Boredom is something that occurs even in the most enduring and established organizations. If employees are suffering frequent boredom, they are likely to be underutilized, and it is the responsibility of leaders to ensure that employees are engaged.

When employees are falling victim to boredom, one may notice that they are prone to failure at work. Bored employees usually become disengaged. As the leader, it is important to help employees realize why their jobs are important and also consider rewarding their efforts and explaining how their contribution is part of the bigger picture (Annilee, 2007). The organizational leaders should consider the issue of boredom with great concern because it can greatly affect the affect the performance of employees. With reduced performance, there will be a decrease in productivity; thus, reduction in profitability. Organizations need to ensure that they establish a work environment that will ensure that employees feel engaged.

The organization can also consider the use of job rotation as a strategy that will employees perform different duties in the workplace and they can also get the chance of learning while in the organization. With job rotation, employees can do jobs that they do not do every day through switching their tasks with co-workers and can help reduce boredom and increase productivity (Loukidou et al. (2009). Boredom can cause more and more employees to start performing non-work related activities so as to keep themselves entertained during work hours. It is essential that organizations should consider the problems of boredom as an issue of great importance as it can lead to lost productivity in the workplace.

Reducing workplace boredom

When dealing with workplace boredom, the human resource managers should concentrate on reducing boredom. Human resource managers are usually central to the process of preventing and managing boredom. The HR managers are key in ensuring the development and implementation of procedures and policies. It is the duty of the HR managers to understand what workplace boredom is, what causes it, and how to prevent and manage it. The human resource department will have to work with others providing services to support individuals so as to identify the sources of problems that need action and to manage the successful return to work.

Managers should also take the responsibility of reducing workplace boredom. Boredom can give rise to errors, decreased productivity, and costly and unnecessary outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. Managers need to ensure that staff are engaged and have enough variety to keep them retained. Loukidou et al. (2009) stated that the most significant cause of workplace boredom is the undemanding workload. Thus, managers need to look at ways of reducing the sources of workplace boredom and encourage healthier ways of coping. Managers are crucial to the successful prevention and the management of workplace boredom. Managers are usually the first port of call when there is a problem, and they are in an ideal position of identifying and managing boredom. With the appropriate skills, managers can be able to deal better with boredom within a team. The manager has the responsibility of supporting and involving in organizational initiatives for tackling boredom  (Annilee, 2007). The managers can support staff to prevent boredom and help them in managing it in case it occurs through providing access to relevant support services.

Employees can also play a role in reducing workplace boredom. It is the responsibility of employees to raise concerns and also tell their managers or representatives about the possible problems and the sources of boredom in the workplace. When the organization is not aware of the issue of boredom, it will be difficult to take any action possible. Therefore, it is the role of employees to help in reducing any issues of boredom. Employees should understand what work related stress it, its causes, and how to manage and prevent boredom. Employees can also play a role in raising awareness about the issue with their colleagues and know the policies and procedures of dealing with the issue (Annilee, 2007). Employees can also help in identifying early when they or their colleagues are starting to experience issues that can lead to workplace boredom and raise this with their HR manager so that they can help in resolving the problem.


There are some factors contributing to workplace boredom. Some of these factors include stable, individual differences, information technology, and employees’ expectations about the work. Boredom is an issue that is affecting the performance of employees resulting in low productivity. Thus, it is the responsibility of organizations including employees, managers, and the HR department to consider the issue as of great concern and determine ways of dealing with the problem.


Annilee M. (2007). Workplace boredom coping: health, safety, and HR implications. Personnel Review, 36(5)701 - 721

Jex, S & Mael, F (2015). Workplace boredom: an integrative model of traditional and contemporary approaches. Group & Organization Management, 40(2) 131-159

Loukidou, L., Loan-Clarke, J., & Daniels, K. (2009). Boredom in the workplace: More than monotonous tasks. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11,381-405

Sunday, 10 April 2016 00:56

Mentoring Relationship

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Mentoring Relationship



Course instructor


In the development of relationships, the ultimate rationale and guiding element is the fact that the parties that are involved in that relationship should be able to gain from the fact that they are in any form of relationship. In the attainment of this attribute, guidance rates high as one of the attributes that characterize a good relationship. In the guidance, I would expect that the other party offers a direction in which we can follow in attaining the desired. Additionally, constructive criticism is additionally a vital attribute that should be evident in the relationship. Criticism by the other party should not only be meant to put me down and only look at the shortcomings (Eby, 2010). The criticism should encompass correcting me when I have swayed away from the rightful path and offering direction to the right path and also acknowledging the instances that I have done well.

An effective relationship should be one that is characterized by positive feedback in that the emphasis should not always be on the negative attributes but the positive ones as well. It is common to find that most of the reaction one gets from the partners relates to the negative attributes with minimal emphasis on the positive elements, an attribute that leads to frustration in relationships.  The outcome of such a relationship is that the frustration grows to an extent that the relationship cannot be sustained and thus leading to their demise. Additionally, the person I would like to be in a relationship with is one that leads by example, not saying one thing just to be heard and doing another that is totally divergent (Eby, 2010). Practicing what one speaks is a vital attribute in any relationship as it makes it possible to develop value and genuineness among the parties to the relationship.


Eby, L. T. (2010). Mentoring. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational            psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 20:11

Scientific Hypothesis

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Scientific Hypothesis
Jane will have a wedding in less than ten weeks. Jane’s wedding is estimated in less than ten weeks. Jane’s remaining wedding preparation will take nine weeks and four days. Therefore, Jane will wed in less than ten weeks. Evidence shows that Karl Popper’s disconfirming a hypothesis strategy is the best and effective approach of providing hypothesis results. Although the method is much better compared to confirming hypothesis approach, I think if you combine the two strategies you will end up with effective results, (Kataria, 2012).

The approach of Karl Poppers hypothesis strategy uses modus tolens in the process of scientific hypothesis, falsifying, and disconfirming. If you want to develop a testing hypothesis strategy, you should be effective and thorough in order to arrive at sound results. The tow strategies are applicable in the testing of hypothesis but works at different ways in developing maximum testable evidence situations. In testing the above hypothesis, I have developed; anyone can apply any method simply because it will result to the same findings. Alternatively, the hypothesis can be tested by contacting the wedding planner to confirm whether Jane is a wedding in less than ten weeks, (Kataria, 2012).


Kataria, M. (2012). The role of scientific hypothesis: Evidence on cognitive bias in formation of beliefs. Journal of Socio-Economics, 41(4), 364-369. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2012.04.005

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:00

Semantic Memory

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In week five, we learnt about the semantic memory. The semantic memory is the section of a person’s memory that stores general knowledge. It accounts for what we know. Chapter 7 of the book Cognition presents a number of researches that attempt to describe how information is retrieved from the semantic memory. According to the researches, priming is one of the way in which individuals retrieve information from the semantic memory.

A prime refers to the primary stimulus that triggers the memory retrieval process. The prime stimulus triggers the second stimulus known as the target. The target stimulus refers to any item of special interest. The target stimulus triggers the retrieval of the facilitation stimulus. This refers to a positive effect on the processing of information that is triggered by the presence of protagonist related information. Inhibition is the other stimulus within the priming process. This refers to a negative effect on the processing of information as a result of the presence of antagonist information.

One of arguments that are brought out in this study is that the amount of knowledge that a person possess determines the process of understanding. Having prior knowledge about a phenomenon increases the ability to comprehend that phenomenon. I can apply this argument in my life by ensuring that I always remained informed.
Activities such as reading, travelling and interacting with others, enhance an individual’s general knowledge and thus enhance the process of understanding. This argument has also influenced me in terms of how I explain things to other people. The argument implies that in order to promote understanding new information need to be built on an individual’s existing information. Thus, I will be explaining concept using things that the receipt of the information can relate.

Ashcraft M. & Radvansky G. (2009). Cognition. Pearson Publishers

Thursday, 17 March 2016 08:03

Bacteria Resistance

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In this article, Gail presents a strong case why bacteria resistance should be given global attentions. However, the contents of the article are contrary to the heading of the article. A huge part of the article has been dedicated to explaining resistance and how to control it rather than the health threat of antibiotic resistance. Below is a summary of his article.

Clinicians all over the world use antibiotic to treat bacterial diseases. However, a large number of individuals are suffering from antibiotic resistance. This largely affected the treatment of complex bacterial diseases. The European center for disease control (ECDC) conducts annual awareness day. The aim of the day is to increase and keep responsible use of antibiotics all over the world. The need to increase awareness about antibiotic resistance emanate from the fact that the number of patients using antibiotics keeps on increasing. Apart from organizing this annual event, other strategies have been employed by different organizations to reduce misuse of antibiotic. It is important for an individual t o understand the nature and types of bacteria for him or her to understand drug resistance.

Bacteria are one of the most populous organisms in the world. They are classified using four major ways. The first classification is based on the response of bacteria to gram stain. According to this classification, there are gram –negative and gram positive Cocci. Some of the most common Cocci that affect human n life include Streptococcus, Clostridium and Listeria. Gram-negative bacteria do not retain gram-negative stain. They include bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp, helicobacter pylori, Shigella spp and other pathogens such as hemophilic influenza. Bacteria can also be classified as either aerobes or anaerobes. Aerobes survive in non-oxygenated environments such as the gut, genital tract and mouth. Bacteriodes is a classical example of anaerobes. Atypical bacteria differ from other bacteria through the presence of thick lipid cell wall. They include Chlamydia and other intercellular organisms.

Antibiotic drugs

Once ingested, antibiotics act on bacteria in several ways. Pencillin and cephalosporin bind with the peptidoglycan cell wall, weakening the bacterium and preventing it from reproduction. Quinoles interferences with the DNA of the bacteria reducing its ability to reproduce. Macrolids interferences with the protein synthesis of bacteria. Others such as trimethoprim act as folate antagonists.

Antibiotics can be categorized into the broad spectrum and narrow spectrum. Broad spectrum fights a range number of bacteria while narrow spectrums are more specific. Bacteria live with other commensals, which aggravate the effects of bacteria. Broad spectrum antibiotic are disadvantageous because the kill all flora in the gut. This gives chance to antibiotic resistant bacterias such as Clostridium difficile to thrive. Clindamycin, ciproflaxicin, cephalosporins and amoxiclax are some of the broad spectrum antibiotics which cause aftermath infections. They are called “high risk” antibiotics. Amoxicillin and clarithromycin are some of the commonly prescribed antibiotics. These antibiotics are classified as medium risk. However, any antibiotic has the potential of increasing the risk of C. difficile.

The history of resistance to antibiotics can be traced to one of the first antibiotic (penicillin) during the second world. Frantic efforts were done to reverse the phenomenon, but with no avail. Consequent antibiotics faced the same challenges of mutating bacteria that have the potential of evading antibiotics. The ability of bacteria to evolve is attributed to their simple structure and their ability to reproduce very fast. Bacteria have developed several strategies to survive antibiotic treatments. Some have responded by acquiring genes that produce various enzymes that neutralize antibiotics such as lactamases.
Others find alternative metabolic pathways or site of attack that antibiotics cannot attach. Some species of bacteria respond to antibiotic by decreasing the permeability of their cell wall while others develop efflux pumps that remove the antibiotic from the bacterium. Antibiotic resistance is not an individual patient problem, but it is also a societal problem. A lot of efforts have to be dedicated to reducing antibiotic resistance to protect some of the most developed medical procedures such as transplant that are dependent on the success of antibiotics. Anti-biotic resistance has been declared as of the treated threat facing world health.

Some of the strategies that can be used to minimize antibiotic resistance include:

One of the areas that practitioners can effectively fight antibiotic resistance is the prescription of antibiotic for self-limiting illnesses. It is crucial for practitioners to pay attention on ensuring they give the right prescription, the right dose and the right length of time. Antibiotics should be used in marginal infections only when there is evidence of symptomatic benefit. Scientific evidence has shown that use of antibiotics to treat upper respiratory infections is not always effective. For example, using antibiotics to treat sore throat only shorten the duration of illness by 16 hours. The use of antibiotic to treat acute otitis among children has huge shortcomings than benefits. However, clinicians can be forced to use antibiotics for self-limiting illness in cases of busy surgeries, pressure from a client, and short appointments.
Practitioners should never use antibiotics as placebos. Many clinicians belief they are not engaging in unethical practices by using antibiotics to please patients. Use of placebo is high among practitioners ranging from 17% to 99%. Clinicians should come together to develop a strategy to fight placebo.

As a clinician, it is crucial to be able to inform the patient in a polite manner that antibiotics are not necessary in his or her case. It is important to base your judgment on a detailed history of the patient and a thorough analysis of the patient’s demand for antibiotics. It is imperative to reassure the patient in case of self-limiting illnesses. The clinician should explain to the patient that antibiotics are not harmful, but they have side effects. Inform the client that antibiotics increases the risk of C. difficile, particularly among the aged, those whose immune has been suppressed and those using proton pump inhibitors. It is also vital for the patient to be aware that antibiotics causes drug interactions, and can be dangerous with other drugs.

The clinician should also strive to explain to the patient the effect of antibiotic resistance. They should use individual level as a reference to make sure the patient resonate with the elucidation. It is imperative to explain to the patient the individualized effects of antibiotic resistance. Always make them understand that use of antibiotic regularly could increase their susceptibility to a host of bacteria and infections.

However, clinicians have been given discretion to use antibiotics to elderly people suffering from two or more co-morbidities. Clinicians should use this discretion to assess the situation of the patient and make informed judgment whether antibiotic prescription is essential. Clinicians are always advised to provide a safety net that will create confidence in patient. This is an effective way of reassuring them. According to Spurling et al (2007) delayed prescription in one of the effective methods of reducing overall antibiotic use without detriment to safety.


Gail Haddock (2012). The health threat of antibiotic resistance. Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group.

Thursday, 26 November 2015 07:31

Banks banking on network security

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Banks banking on network security






It is a requirement, and it is also mandatory that organizations protect their information from misuse because information is an indispensable asset for any organization. The way an organization collects captures and stores information ought to take place in an ethical manner, whether it is the information of customers, partners or their suppliers. In any business that is operating in the current information age, it cannot avoid to collect and store a large amount of information that they use for business purpose. It is a commonplace for the banking industry to adopt the use of technology to offer better services to customers. The paper takes us through the answer for the question as to why banks would not want to adopt the online transfer delay policy.

Q 1. What reason would a bank have for not wanting to adopt the online transfer delay policy?

The reason a bank might have as to why it does not want to adopt an online delay policy is because we are living in a global economy where we have to communicate in an effective way with people (Colton, & Kraemer, 1980). In essence, the way banks work is also facing an evolution and a revolution, and this is impactful in the way they deliver their services to the clients and by so doing they can satisfy many people.  When we have a look at the case study presented in the textbook, it is only one bank, the Barclays bank that talks about the online transfer delay. The bank thus has the allowance to continue providing more security while forgetting that they are still losing feedbacks from customers as many of them requires real-time response. A bank may opt not to go for an online delay in the case when their clients desire that the online transfer be fast and the services of that particular bank those of other banks.

A 24/7 economy means that there is a satisfaction for many people. However, having a tight policy although it is may be good; it can discourage the clients from using a given bank for their transactions. The delay policy can result in many customers experienced delay of their transactions and thus developing a feeling of dissatisfaction.  The delay policy adoption will see banks having an ad hoc way of doing things without flexibility. It will seem ridiculous that a customer sends money and then his/her transaction goes into limbo. The transfer of money overseas can even take up to a week, and the lag can prompt suspicion from the clients (King, 1983). The delay of the transfer means that a bank suspects its system of security and also the delay can mean that the client is liable for overdraft fees. When a bank considers these factors, it can choose not to adopt the online money transfer delay policy because it may feel that the policy brings more harm to its business than good.

A customer views the delay from a different perspective rather than from the perspective of the bank, for instance, a client may see the delay as an incompetence of the bank management. By the fact that the customer views the delay as such is a reason for them to demand a quick response, making a bank work harder so as to speed the transfer process.  The delay also leads to a case where the bank personnel can begin to blame one another in the event when things fall apart, and this makes the client doubly frustrated. Also, for the fact that banks rely on SWIFT that in turn relies on intermediary banks makes it difficult for a bank not to adopt the delay policy because the delay is not solely in the hands of that particular bank.  No bank can be willing to be accountable for a mistake that is not her making.

The transferring bank and the receiving bank do share the risk of fraud meaning that a single bank is not responsible for the entire delay of the money. Once there is a wire transfer, the money goes. That creates a risk for a bank that has complex procedures for managing risks and pays a high fee for the same effort (Kim & Chung, 2013).  The tracking of the cause of delay may take a long time before the recipient receives the money because it has to go through ACH (automated clearing house) network. The network can sometimes have mechanical problems, and a bank may not want to be accountable for the delay. After the initiation of an ACH debit, the sender has no idea if an account from which it is sending money contains enough money for transfer (Syed & Raisinghani, 2000). The sending bank is also uncertain if such an account does exist. The bank on the receiving end, however, can terminate the transaction because of insufficient funds from the sender account or customer disputes.

The banks are also aware that there exist many limits to the speed of the online transfer delay and that makes them reluctant to adopt a policy that will rather tie them. The policy may bring a lot of conflicts to especially the people that are in charge of the transfer and that would raise an unending blame game. The delay policy can be limiting to the banks because more time between initiation of the transfer and its settlement offers a high opportunity to arrest any fraudulent transaction.  Also “the impact of faster processing is minimal on common applications like direct deposit, reoccurring billing among other applications. A bank can reschedule those transactions in advance so as to settle them on the desired date” (Piccoli, 2012).  It is, therefore, apparent that banks may have reluctance in adopting online transfer delays with the considerations of the factors highlighted above.


As highlighted above, the major reason as to why a bank can be reluctant in adopting an online transfer delay policy is because we are operating in a global economy. The global economy is 24/7, and it requires that the provision of services be as quick as possible so as to benefit from the use of technology in any industry.  The policy can be so trying to them to the extent that their customers are not happy with the delay, and thus it will lead them to lose many customers. The customers cannot understand the reason for delay because they want the delivery of the services be instant because it is an online process. That is why, therefore, a bank may not adopt the policy.


Colton, K. W., & Kraemer, K. L. (1980). Computers and Banking: Electronic Funds Transfer Systems and Public Policy. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Kim, K. J., & Chung, K.-Y. (2013). IT convergence and security 2012. Dordrecht: Springer.

King, J. L. (1983). Social equity and electronic funds transfer. Irvine, CA: Public Policy Research Organization, University of California.

Piccoli, G. (2012). Essentials of information systems for managers. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Syed, M. R., & Raisinghani, M. S. (2000). Electronic commerce: Opportunity and challenges. Hershey, Pa: Idea Group Pub.

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Thursday, 26 November 2015 07:29

Database Backup and Disaster Recovery

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Database Backup and Disaster Recovery

Student Name

Course Title


Date of submission

Database Backup and Disaster Recovery

Database backup

            Organizations and company undertake different activities that get to result in the large sets of data. The organization data will get stored within the database. The database gets to provide the storage of the huge organization data from where the normal analytics get done for the draw of inferences useful for the growth of the organization operations. Database defines the storage of the related data files within one a specified hardware and software in a particular area. The database requires the advanced security protection. The backup database concept comes in to get the organization data readily available and the retention of the data integrity without the distortion in the causes of interferences and disruptions. Therefore, database backup defines the generation of the copy of the organization operations architecture, procedures, and the data within the database and get stored in totally different place from the current location of the database. It defines the duplication of the database contents and storing them at a different place (Preston, 2007).

            Backup gets categorized either as the physical backup or the logical backup. The physical backup gets to define the physical data files of a given organization that can get stored, backed up, and recovered. Some the physical files will include the data files, the database control files, and the backed red logs. On the other hand, the logical backup defines the existing procedures and tables found in a given database, and that get stored in the form of binary files. During the backup of the database, the database administrators get to apply the corresponding database import utilities for the accomplishment of the task.

Types of Database Backup

            The mode of creating the database copy can get done in three different modes. The models get to interrelate for the achievement of the action of creation the blueprint of the existing information within the database. The modes of database backup include the full backup, differential backup, and transaction log backup. The full backup is the essential mode of backing up the database. The full backup mode gets the concerned personnel to backup all the contents of the database. The data contained within the database gets backed up in regards to the full backup. The mode will require the large sets of storage media and the process is much involving. The mode gets to categorize the data within the database into sets of the file and provides the copy by the grouping of the files for the easy recovery purposes. A differential backup is dependent on the full backup mode and will get to apply the most principles of the full backup. Differential backup gets to back up the current information or data, the data that has got updated in the database. The models get to discard and ignore the old data and take the concentrate on the current updated data. The differential backup type is less involving as it is easy to undertake. At the same time, the differential mode will require less and small storage size because of the ignorance of the old data. The third mode of database backup gets to involve the creation of the copy of the transaction done within the database. The database transaction log backup is a built on the full backup. The backup takes to backup the information about the transactions and any activity done within the database. This kind of backup is essential in the real-time processing, and it is critical in the sense that the occurrence of an interrupt gets the whole process incomplete (Ruggiero & Heckathorn, 2012).

Disaster Recovery

            Organizations get to operate within different environments. The activities and the operations of the organizations get subjected to different risks. The occurrence of the bad event will get the cause of the interference to the normal operations of the organizations. The organizations should get to compose themselves and recover from the occurrence of the event and get back to the normal operations as before. Therefore, the organization should get to have the disaster planning that will get the organizations develops the mechanisms for handling the different vulnerabilities and threats that get to inhabit the organization. Disaster recovery defines the action of the organization getting to follow up a defined set of procedures to get back to the normal operations in the case where the disaster has occurred (Wallace& Webber, 2011). A disaster on its hand is the unpredictable occurrence of an event that gets to subject the organization to the risks of getting the resources destroyed. Therefore, it is an action that occurs by getting the organization unaware of what is happening. Disasters get categorized into two types, the natural disaster that gets to occur without the influence of the humankind, and the human has no control over their occurrence. The natural disasters may includes, the floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The human kind disasters get caused by the negligence of the human in the undertaking of the duties and responsibilities. The disasters may include terrorism, fire, explosions, chemical spillages, and the power failures (Snedaker & Rima, 2014).

            Disaster planning gets to involve some procedure that organization should get to bid to reduce the effects of the disasters and get prevent some occurrence of the disasters. According to Akhtar et al. (2012), disaster planning should get to reduce the adverse effects of the disaster, and the plan involves the following actions; prevention, preparedness, response, and the recovery.


            It is the mechanism of getting to undertake the identification of the vulnerabilities, undertaking the research and then analysis of the appropriate control measures over the identified vulnerability. The process takes to have the routine checking of the organization properties as well as the undertaking of the regular maintenance of the organization assets.


            In all the cases, the organization should have disaster recovery team. The recovery team should be aware of always being ready to face the challenges that get the organization through. Preparedness defines how ready the recovery team is as far as the disaster gets concerned. The preparedness of the high level, the recovery response team should get the training on the ways of going by the occurrence of the threat or vulnerable. The team should get to have a well-defined procedure for the team guidance.


            The response is the action undertaken by the recovery team in the case of the occurrence of the disaster. The response team should get to follow up the procedures that got laid down previous within the organization to have their action reduce the adverse effects of the disaster that has occurred in the organization.


            The recovery is the mode of getting back to the normal operations of the organization. During the recovery, the organization should have had documented procedures on the way the process of recovery shall take place. The procedures should get integrated into a plan that will adequately provide the guide on the way to undertake the activity to get the organization back to its normal state.

Importance of integrating Database Backup and Disaster Planning

            The database backup provides the organization with the information in the cases where the database has got compromised. The database backup provides the assuarity to the organization on the availability and reliability of the information. In whichever the case, the organization can get to have the access to the information. Therefore, the action gets to provide the reliable and the maximum protection of the organization information. The data recovery planning gets to have the easy go through by the organization to have the organization back to the normal operations. The integration of the concept will get the organization to enjoy the services provided by their applications. The organization will get to move easily from one position to the other without the hardship. The relocation can get done at the easy of the globe. In the cases of the disaster occurrence and the information of the organization get compromised then the recovery of the information will be at the smile of the organization security professional as the information copy gets to lie somewhere and readily available.

            The incorporation, on the other hand, will get to have the cutting of the unnecessary expenses to the organization. The mechanisms employed gets to have the organization expenditure reduced in the cases of a disaster occurrence. The measures of recovery get documented, and the organization will input less. The failure of the organization to have the integration of the concept subsequently will get the organization spending and incurring mush expenses to get the organization to the normal operational standards, and this will affect the financial status of the organization. The reputation of the organization will get compromised as the safety of the client information will be at the risk.


Akhtar. A, Buchholtz. J, Ryan. M and Kumar. S, (2012), Data Backup and Recovery Best             practices. Retrieved from

Preston, W. C. (2007). Backup and recovery. Beijing: O'Reilly.

Ruggiero. P, Heckathorn. M,(2012), Data backup Options, Carnegie Mellon University.    Produced for US-CERT, a government organization, Retrieved from,

Snedaker, S., & Rima, C. (2014). Business continuity and disaster recovery planning for IT professionals. Waltham, MA: Syngress.

Wallace, M., & Webber, L. (2011). The disaster recovery handbook: A step-by-step plan to ensure business continuity and protect vital operations, facilities, and assets. New York: AMACOM.

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