Physiology (6)

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 23:12

Combating Ageism in Society

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Ageing is an unavoidable aspect of human life. People are born; they mature into vibrant adults before beginning to age gradually. Unfortunately, discrimination on the basis of age is a common social habit that is witnessed in different institutions such as the work place and society.  The practice of stereotyping and discriminating a person on the basis of his or her age is known as ageism. Ageism continues to flourish in the society as it is practiced based on a set of beliefs and norms.

For instance, there is a common belief that the older a person becomes, the less productive they are at the workplace. A company that believes such a statement emphasizes on hiring young employees instead of those that are old. Ageism has traditionally been tied to discrimination against the aging population. However, a new breed of ageism that discriminates on the young generation has risen. Ageism to the young generation focuses on aspects of qualification and experienced in which a company may prefer to hire an older, qualified and experience personnel rather than a fresh graduate without experience. The practices of ageism are adverse, and it is the liability of the society as a whole to fight against the vice.


A research article. Researchers find three causes to ageism. 2012.

This ALFA article presents the findings that demonstrate the factors that furnace ageism in the American society.  Ageism is a stereotypical tendency that is entrenched in the mind of people at a tender age. With maturity, an individual already exposed to age discrimination tendency will practice the discriminations in different sectors. Ageism persists in the society as the younger generation feels that the older generation should step down so that they can access well paying jobs taken by the seniors. Ageism is also furnace by the perception that older people should not pretend to be younger than their actual age. The perception that old people are taking up vital resources such as health care also furnaces ageism ideologies.


Bofey Daniel. UK among Europe’s worst countries for ageism. The Observer. Sunday 30th October 2011.

 Policy editor and observer author Daniel Boffer write the article on the prevalence of ageism in Europe. The author of the article indicates that the elderly populations are pitied rather envied by the younger generations.  There is a widespread perception that age brings weakness and unhappiness thus the tendency to pity the elderly as a weak and unhappy lot.

The level of respect for the elderly also diminishes with age. The article relies on the European social survey that revealed that most UK citizens have no friends above the age of 70. The study thus reveals a form of discrimination on the basis of age. The elderly in UK are mostly left to lead their solitary lives with their fellow old peers or alone. The article reveals how ageism is a vice that can be entrenched in the life of other members of a society hence the need to control it.

Dittmann Melissa. Fighting ageism. Vol. 34.5 (2003). Monitor feature

Dittmann writes a feature on ageism from a psychologist’s angle. The article presents that the American population is yet to fight the vice of ageism. Unfortunately, ageism has several negative consequences. Ageism shortens the lives of the old people due to the negative perceptions. Negative beliefs and attitudes also worsen the memory of the old people. Negativity also enhances the feeling of worthlessness that furnace the occurrence of depression. The article articulates why ageism should be perceived as a vice that requires immediate eradication. There is a need to change the negative perception of old people by minimizing exposure to age stereotyping.

Greengross Sally. Why ageism must be eradicated. BBC News. Tuesday 7th December 2004.

            Baroness Sally Greengross analyzes how ageism a waste of talent. The article pinpoints how people unconsciously discriminate against the aged hence complicating preventive measures. In the workplace, for instance, a manager must perform an act of kindness to an older person. However, rather than the act appearing as an act of kindness, it may appear as a sign of discrimination and pity. Treating the elderly population as different is patronizing and can harm their self esteem in the long run. Rather than treating the older generation differently, it is vital to integrate them at the work place, in decision making process and overall community activities.

The young generation may be energetic and vibrant. However, they need the expertise and experience that the older generation possesses thus the need to collaborate and work together.

Robert Butler. Combating ageism in America. Open society institute. 2006

            In this report, Robert Buttler presents the issue of ageism in American and why it is vital to combat the vice. The author argues that combating ageism is a matter of human rights and civil liberties. Ageism contributes to injuries, exploitation and mistreatment thus a violation of human rights. The authors also look at how culture and the media furnaces ageism in societies. The successful eradication of ageism requires that societies fight against the manifestation of the vice in institutions such as the workplace, nursing homes and health care facilities.

Laws and policies aimed at ensuring ageism does not persists should also be passed so as to eradicate the vice form the society. This article is vital in the discussion of the topic as it not only looks at the problem but also offer probable solutions.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 20:05

Should Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal

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Physician assisted suicide is something that has created a controversial situation for the past few decades. The topic is still being debated in the current setting simply because it creates a lot of ethical questions that at times lack answers. There are people who think that suffering occurs for a reason thus assisted suicide should not be allowed while there are those who believe that relieving suffering should always be the highest priority. It is clear that most people think nothing about their death and how they will die given that they were in a terminally ill condition. Thousands of people die every day where they encounter a lot of pain. These people only get some medications that assist them ease the pain, but in the end they die having suffered from pain which could have been controlled. Assisted suicide or euthanasia should be legalized in order to assist people die a peaceful death because at the end of the day they will die.

Arguments for
It is true that there are people who have class and they would not like to suffer while dying. There are those people who have a right to their death thus physicians should assist them in dying. It is the work of the government to maximize the happiness of its citizens thus at some instances it should allow assisted suicide for patients who do not want to suffer. Death should be taken as an option like the many options we have and choose in life. People are allowed by nature to decide what is right and what is wrong depending on the situation they are, (Nyholm, 2010). Evidence shows that in life people are allowed to make choices of their life such as taking alcohol, taking tobacco, and many more provided they are aware of the consequences that will occur in the end. It should be the same case with the issue of assisted suicide. As long as the person is of sound mind and knows the result, I believe that euthanasia should be legalized and given to those who want. It should be much better if we allow terminally ill patients to have options about their life thus physicians should assist them in any way they want their life end, (Dowbiggin, 2009).

Legalizing physician assisted suicide will allow medical practitioners to pursue their primary role in a healthcare setting and in society. It is with no doubt that different patients suffer in different ways thus health care environment should have different options to think on how to assist their patients. Legalizing physician assisted suicide will help physicians pursue their role in the society simply because they will have the opportunity to give their clients as many options for ending their life, (Sayers & Bethell, 2011). The current situation in health care undermines some of physician’s role in providing services to patients because alleviating pain by means of assisted suicide is not taken as an option. Seeking ways of helping patients to have a continued life is not the only option that should be focused. Assisting patients to reduce their patient should also be an active option and this should only be arrived at if we legalize the aspect of assisted suicide. The objectives of treatment in healthcare are to alleviate or eliminate pain and discomfort that occurs due to illness. Physician assisted suicide should be allowed in order to help physicians pursue and practice their role in the society, (Nyholm, 2010).

There are eminent people who lived a life which was happy. This happiness should be extended even when they are dying. Having this in mind, death should be a form of happiness to those who want to have a smooth death that has no pain. For the benefit of terminally ill patients, physician assisted suicide should be legalized. We have those people who feel they have some status quo and would like to have a dignity life all way through. No need to have such a person suffers from pain 24 hours for more than 6 months. It is the work of the healthcare setting to review the current policy and see on how to help terminally ill people escape from the condition of unbearable pain. There are some illness conditions that cannot be treated with painkillers such as when cancer enters into your bones. In such a case, assisted suicide is the only option simply because the person will eventually die. This is the reason why the current policy should be reviewed and allows the legalization of assisted suicide in order to help patients escape from the unbearable pain, (Dowbiggin, 2009).

Arguments Against

There are those people who believes that life is God given and no one have power on deciding on when, how, and in which ways should one end his life expect God the giver of life. If assisted suicide is legalized it will contributes to the violation of medical ethics., Based on the Hippocratic Oath that physicians take when graduating, no one is allowed to give deadly medicine to patients who asks for it. It forbids in the involvement of taking fees for teaching medicine or something that is related to suicide as long as the person is breathing or is in life. Another thing is that if physician assisted suicide when legalized will undermine the trust between patient and doctor. The main belief of society is that doctors are there to preserve life and heal, not to assist patients die on request or not. It is the obligation of doctors to build on this trust by developing an environment where patients feel comfortable when getting assistance from the doctor. Doctors should try not to do anything that is illegal for the purpose of assisting their clients, and since assisted suicide is not legal, it should not be practiced at all levels, (Sayers & Bethell, 2011).


In some instances, we make decisions that are favorable to our life because everyone wants a dignity life. Terminally ill clients should be given chance to make decisions about their life and decide on how they want to die. The government should have some set strategies, and rules on assisting those who are sick and legalizing assisted suicide is one of the ways of helping patients. It is true that the only way for certain patients with critical health conditions is to go for death option. Although we should not stand by that argument that everything should be free for everyone, in matters of life and pain, patients should be given a choice to decide on what they want and how they want to die.

Sayers, G.M. & Bethell, H.W.L., (2011). Pacing extremely old patients: who decides the doctor, the patient, or the relatives? Heart. Doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.022731. Retrieved from,, on June 8, 2013
Dowbiggin, I. (2009). Historical timeline: History of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Retrieved from,, on June 8, 2013
Nyholm, C. (2010). Doctor Kevorkian interviewed by Anderson Cooper on CNN. Retrieved from,, on June 8, 2013

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:58

Future Trends in Healthcare

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The health care industry is one of the sectors that have experienced the widest form of technological advances. Technology has changed the health care industry. Treatments and surgeries that were unthinkable are now a reality and practiced in all healthcare facilities. Technology has advanced treatment, health care delivery and improved the equipment used by physicians, and nurses to render effective health care services. It is evident that technological advancements are bound to enhance and improve the health care industry. One of the technological areas that is bound to have a positive effect on the health care industry is the information and communication technologies. Advancements in the health information system mean that technologies such as the internet will; be used as an external delivery portal to enhance health care delivery through the provision of patient-specific information.
Communication in Healthcare
Communication between patients and physicians has traditionally been assumed to be oral and informed shared is done by the word of mouth. Technological advancements in the communication sector is bound to improve health care delivery in the health care industry. Health care facilities that adopt effective communication technologies are able to improve their service delivery and guarantee improved health care services. Currently, care givers and health care providers are using basic communication technologies to enhance their service delivery (Wager, & Glaser, 2009). It is, however, expected that the health care industry will realize significant improvements with emerging and improving technologies. Health care facilities need to embrace communication infrastructures that enhance the provision of effective health care services and ascertain that patients will access quality care.
Electronic Communication in Healthcare
The use of the internet and other form of electronic communication has revolutionized health care delivery in the industry. The emergence of the internet has enabled health care professionals to access a wide selection of information within the shortest time possible. Initially, physicians and nurses seeking clarification on different health issues had to use literary material such as books. With hardly enough time on their hands, books proved to be difficult to read through so as to access specific information. The internet offered physicians some degree of reprieve as they could access any form of information within a short duration. The internet has also made it easy for the public to access health materials that were previous inaccessible (Coiera, 2006). If, for instance, a patient needs additional information so as to understand his condition, an internet search will ensure that he gets adequate information.

The general public also uses the internet to get informed on different medical and health related issues. Prior to the emergence of the internet, patient relied on their physicians to educate them on issues such as prevention of an illness, is on maintaining optimal health and many other medical issues. The internet has provided patients and the general public with a reliable source of alternative opinion with regard to a medical problem (Haux, & Wolf, 2008).

E-mail use in health care facilities has also facilitated health professional’s ability to save on time and resources. E-mails are fast and easy to use. E-mails also guarantee that recipients receive the information hence risk of information loss as in mails/letters is non-existent. The use of emails as alternative modes of communication in the health care industry is bound to advance as the public become gradually relaxed with the idea of using this technology. E-mails will provide patients and physicians with an alternative consultative platform. Currently, consultation with a physician requires that a patient is physically available at the physician's clinic.

Five years from now, the reality of emails consultation is bound to become a norm. Physicians will use emails to hold consultative meetings with patients (Castellanos, & Meyers, 2004). The consultative meetings could focus on preventive measures, health education and how patients can handle different non emergency situations. The need for physical encounters with physicians will no longer be necessary unless unavoidable. Such technological advancements will see the queues in hospitals and outside physician’s clinics reduce significantly. It is only patients that require mandatory physical examination that will meet the physician physically.

The introduction of telemedicine technology has also enhanced service delivery as physicians are able to share patient’s information, as well as other medical reports. Technologies such as telemedicine has enabled physicians to offer rapid medical assistance as less time is spent interviewing the patient for his medical history. The use of telemedicine in the future is expected to grow with increased connectivity that ensures patient-physicians relations is maintained as physicians are able to reach their patients regardless of their geographical location (Haux, & Wolf, 2008). Concerns over missing appointments will reduce as patients can access their physicians using links such as video conferencing.

The physicians can connect his patient to the nearest referral doctor, if the need for advanced medical check is required and the distance between physicians and the patient is wide. Advancement in telemedicine is bound to improve health care delivery efforts as patients in remote regions will access the services of a doctor. Physicians will also not be troubled with the requirement to travel to the patient in case he is bed-ridden. Advancements in telemedicine are bound to improve with advancements in communication across urban and rural areas (Wager, & Glaser, 2009).

The electronic medical record (EMR) is another form of technology that has changed health care delivery. EMR technology has enabled physicians to offer prompt health care services as they can access a patient’s records within a short duration. EMR allows for the documentation of a patient’s health care visits, and medication. EMR gives the physicians an opportunity to access a detailed record of his patient’s previous medical conditions and medication before he begins his treatments. EMR has also improved the process of information sharing between physicians. It is through EMR that physicians can make patients referral without a lot of paperwork.

EMR also makes the process of processing for payments and claims easy as all medical expenses that a patient incurs is recorded. EMR also guarantees patients privacy and confidentiality as the patients records can be accessed by a few authorized individuals. This is boost from the previous use of physical files that could get misplaced or land in the wrong hands. Five years from now, paper filling as a form of storing patient information will be a thing of the past. All health care facilities will have embraced the EMR technology as a convenient and fast mode of offering quality health care services (Castellanos, & Meyers, 2004). Physicians will no longer be walking with their stethoscopes only. They will be carrying their mobile devices and laptops to their offices. Using these mobile devices the physicians will be accessing patient information on time hence guarantee prompt patient care. The entire health care facility will be interconnected to the extent that different departments can share information via the EMR technology. A lab technician will, for instance, transmit the lab results to the physicians hence no need of physical movement.

The level of technological advancements with regard to software applications is also bound to improve. Currently, there exists different technologies and software used in the treatment of numerous medical conditions manifested in patients. Technologies such as CT scans and ultrasounds communicate essential medical information about a patient’s medical condition. The ideology of robot-assisted surgery is gradually becoming a reality across different health care facility, and in five years time, robotic surgery is expected to be a reality. Surgical robots will be created using software that enable them perform intricate surgical procedures that are currently life threatening.
Robotic surgery will also minimize the time taken to complete a surgical procedure manually. Patients will be able to come off critical medical conditions and recover quickly (Castellanos, & Meyers, 2004). Robotic surgery will also minimize the risk of errors and complications that can cost a patient his or her life. Robotic surgery will also provide a lasting solution to the strained health personnel thus guarantee quality health care services.

Technology advancement is also bound to improve service delivery in the health care industry. In five years time, it is expected that the public will be driven to use the internet based self care. The emergence of internet based self care will see the need of doctors significantly reduce as people will strive to engage in internet based self care. Internet-based care will be the future alternative to directly seeking doctor’s services. With the internet based system of care, an individual will use the web based technologies that include ‘ask the doctor” interactive services. Individuals will have an online physician who can assist them in resolving different medical issues (Coiera, 2006).
This interactive platform will help individuals seek medical assistance for non-emergency situations that a patient can resolve alone. Over the next five years, it is expected that physicians will turn people homes into personal clinical facilities. Physicians will strive to keep patients within the comfort of their home rather than admit them in health care facilities. Health care providers will use monitoring devices that will be used on home based patients to determine their progress when recovering at home.


Technological advancements are bound to affect all sectors in a society. The health care industry is bound to realize some positive effects due to technological advancements in the information sector. Improvements in technology will undoubtedly result to improvements in the health care industry as health care providers will guarantee fast and improved health care services. Currently, a large population is already suing the internet for communication purposes. The health care industry is bound to improve with the use of the internet and other communication channels. Paper work with regard to patient’s records will be replaced with advanced communication technologies such as telemedicine and EMR, where information will be saved and shared across different health professionals who require them.

Castellanos, A. & Meyers, W. (2004). Robotic Surgery. Annual journal of surgery. Vol. 239(1): 14-21
Coiera, E. (2006). Communication systems in healthcare. Journal of clinical biochemistry. Vol. 27(2); 89-98
Haux, R. & Wolf, K. (2008). Health-enabling technologies. Informatics for health & social care. Vol. 33(2): 77-89
Wager, K. & Glaser, J. (2009). Healthcare Information System. A practical Approach to Health Care Management. USA. John Wiley & Sons

Friday, 18 March 2016 12:11

VCU Basketball Team

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One of the success stories of VCU outside its accolade academic achievement is the achievement of VCU basket ball team. VCU basket ball team was established in 1968 after the medical college of Virginia and Richmond professional institute merged. The team played their first season during the 1968-1969 seasons. In 1978, the team qualified to the national invitational final where they lost narrowly to university of Detroit. Despite having this rich history, the team remained an unknown to many people because of its poor performance in state leagues. However, the team has undergone a massive transformation since the current coach, Shaka smart, was hired as the team coach in 2009. Deriving his name from South African warrior, Shaka has transformed VCU basket ball team from an amateur team to a team that is respected statewide.

Shaka is believed to be one of the most inspiring VCU basketball team coach in the history of VCU. Shaka Smart began his coaching career in 1999 as an assistant coach at the University of California. He also served in the University of Akron, Clemson and Florida before joining VCU. Being one of the youngest coaches in Division 1 league, his success is remarkable. His great work with the team bore fruit during his first season. During this season, Shaka led VCU basket ball team to win CBI championship after beating Saint Louis.
His second season began with a big bang after Larry Sanders was declared for the 2010 NBA draft. The election of Sander with 15th pick by Milwaukee Bucks made VCU the first school within the commonwealth of Virginia to a have a basketball player selected in the 1st round of NBA draft. During the 2010-2011 season, smart led the team to under 23-11 and its consecutive colonial athletic association championship.

VCU basket ball team earned an automatic bid to 2011 NCAAA Tournament. However, it was placed in the “first Four” against popular teams such as USC. Despite the selection of the team being highly criticized, the team went ahead to disappoint many of the critics. Shaka admirable style of coaching helped the team to beat USC in the “First Four,” and went ahead to disappoint pre-tournament favorites Georgia town Hoyas, Purdue Boilermakers and Florida state university. His defeat of Florida state university earned the school team the first ever spot in Elite Eight spot. The success of the team during the 2011 NCAA tournament ended with the team beating University of Kansa 74-61. The performance of the team during this tournament was voted the best upset of all times.

In 2001, Shaka signed an 8 year deal with the team to make him one of the greatest serving coaches with the team. His style of play is interesting. He introduced unique defensive style that targets disrupting opponent striking strategies. This unique defensive style has earned the team as one of the teams with the most aggressive teams in the league. Shaka is also known for his selection criteria, which ensure he has the best players in the team. He has earned several awards and recognitions for his success with VCU basketball team. In 2011, he won Fritz Pollard and Gaines Adams National Coach of the Year Awards, which the highest awards ever won by VCU school coach. Truly Smart has transformed VCU basketball team, and his performance is better than any other recorded in the school history.

Friday, 18 March 2016 12:07

How Weight Gain Leads to Death

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Overweight and obesity have become a common health conditions, not only in developed countries, but also in some developing countries. According to the national center for disease, one in every two American citizen is either overweight or obese. Excess weight is linked with a number of diseases such as diabetes, stroke, hyperlipidemia, some cancers, hypertension and other lifestyle diseases. These conditions have been listed as some of the major causes of death. The recognition that individuals at extremes of body mass distribution has higher risks of mortality has been widely accepted in medical research and practice throughout the twentieth century. Moreover, it is established that the mortality risks of excess weight is specific to circulatory diseases, some cancers and diabetes.

The relationship between weight gain and death can be shown chronologically through ways in which weight and obesity pose as risk factors for a couple of killer diseases. Non-communicable diseases have emerged the leading causes of death in united state and other developed countries ( Lifestyle diseases are closely linked with dietary choice made by the populace. This paper shows the glaring relationship between weight gain/overweight and major non-communicable diseases that have increased mortality and cost of healthcare.

Overweight and diabetes
Obesity has been shown to increase the risk of contracting cardiovascular disease in adult (Steinberger & Daniels, 2003). Steinberger and Daniels reported that an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of deaths among adults in western societies. Obesity plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistant syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes type 2 and increased risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. An increase in weight increases the risk of cardiovascular risks. This is true for both men and women. According to a study conducted in Harvard Alumni, body weight and mortality are directly related. The relationship between obesity and insulin resistance syndrome is closely linked to body fat distribution. Individuals with high fat/adipose tissues are likely to develop insulin resistance syndrome. According to world health organization, over weight and obesity accounts for about 65-80% of new cases of diabetes type 2. The risk of developing diabetes type 2 from overweight and obesity is a factor of age, duration of obesity and weight gain during adult life.

Overweight and obesity contribute importantly to type 2 diabetes through increasing excess body fat and insulin resistance and probably through accelerating the decline in insulin secretion that is required for the development of clinical diabetes (Marso & Stern, 2004). At the insulin receptors site, the receptors are down-regulated, resulting in a decrease, in the number of these receptors across the membrane surface. This reduction causes a decrease in the binding in circulating insulin to receptors and impairs intercellular communication concerning insulin. At the post-receptor site, there is a reduction of in the entrance of glucose into the cell and its use by insulin-sensitive cells, resulting in increased circulating glucose. The increase in blood glucose causes the pancreases to produce greater amounts of insulin as long as the person is overweight.

Overweight and cardiovascular diseases
In another study that examined the relationship obesity and development of cardiovascular diseases. According to Poirier et al (2006), obesity is an independent factor for cardiovascular diseases. It is associated with increased morbidity in young children, mortality and reduced life expectancy. Individuals who are either overweight or obese have altered metabolic profile. The huge layer of adipose tissue under their skin causes several adaptation changes to cardiac structure. Obesity may affect cardiac activities through other risk factors associated with the condition such as dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. Overweight and obesity also predispose individuals to several coronary disorders such as cardiac failure, cardiac attack and coronary heart disease.

Overweight and cancer
According to cancer research center (UK), several studies have confirmed overweight and obesity amplifies the risk of certain cancers. This position is confirmed by world health organization, which reports that obesity and overweight are the most crucial avoidable risk factors to cancer second to smoking. According to Macinnis, R., et a (2004) obesity and overweight are associated with over 17,000 cases of cancer in united kingdom per year. Parkin, M., et al (2010) and Daniel, G., et al (2005), states that, around 7 and 15%, of breast cancer in developed countries are associated/caused by obesity. Several studies have revealed that women who are overweight are at increased danger of contracting postmenopausal breast cancer (Reeves, G.K., et al, 2007 and Lahmann, P., et al, 2004). Obesity is also a major cause of bowel cancer. Obese men have increased risk of contracting bowel cancer. Women with larger waist circumference are also at increased risks of contracting bowel cancer (Pischon et al, 2006). Studies have also shown that overweight increases the chance of getting esophageal cancer (Kubo & Corley, 2006). Several studies have also reported an association between overweight and a number of other cancers such as brain cancer, ovarian cancer and thyroid cancers (Maso et al, 2000).
In 2013, Katherine et al, disputed this long help notation that overweight and obesity increase mortality. Katherine and her colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of all-cause mortality with obesity and overweight. According to their findings, obesity is not associated with increased mortality. Similarly, overweight was associated with lower all-cause mortality.

The relationship between weight gain and major causes of mortality is well documented. Overweight and obesity increase the risk of contracting diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and several cancers. Overweight and obesity reduce cells sensitivity to insulin thus contributing to the development of type diabetes. Obesity causes several cardiac disorders such as hyperlipidimia, dyslipidemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis, which favors the development of other cardiac conditions such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, heart failure and stroke. Overweight has also been associated with several cancers such as esophageal, breast, ovarian, thyroid and prostate cancer. These lifestyle diseases have increased in the different part of the world. Highlighting the link between weight and these diseases will help policy developers and healthcare promoters to develop appropriate strategies to curb overweight in the country. Control of overweight and obesity will play a great role in dipping morbidity and mortality linked with lifestyle diseases. It will also reduce the cost of providing healthcare services.

Body weight and cancer. Cancer research UK. Retrieved from on 20/6/2013.
Katherine et al (2013). Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity. The journal of the American medical association. Vol. 309, issue 1; Pg 3.
Maso Dal et al (2000). A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer. Pudmed Vol. 11 issue 2; Pg 137
Parkin et al (2010). The proprtion of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environment. BJC, Vol. 2. Issue 105
Pischon T. et al (2006). Body size and colon cancer. J Natl Cancer institute.
Poirier et al (2006). Obesity and cardiovascular disease. Pathophysiology, evaluation, and effects of weight loss. AHA scientific statement. Retrieved from on 19/6/2013.
The challenges of diabetes. Retrieved from on 19/6/2013.

Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:48

Type II Diabetes

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Lee, TC, et al. (2011) “Socioeconomic status and incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Data from the Women’s Health Study” PLoS One, 6(12): e27670
In this article, Timothy Lee and eight other scientists from medical schools and hospital medical departments discuss the findings of a study conducted to examine the potential of socio economic status to predict the incidence of Type II Diabetes, a public health epidemic among women. The socio economic status was measured by income and education categories. According to the article, increasing income and advanced education are inversely associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus. This association was measured through the observation of behavioral factors, specifically the body mass index.

This study indicates that socio economic status is a vital predictive factor for incident Type II Diabetes. This conclusion will be helpful in supporting the argument provided as the second reason in my thesis that the onset of Type II Diabetes can be explained by consideration of other factors particularly socioeconomic factors and genetic factors.

Miller, CK, Gutshcall, MD, Mitchell, DC (2009) “Change in food choices following a glycemic load intervention in adults with Type II Diabetes: Research and Professional Brief” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2): 319-324

This article discusses the outcome of an intervention study on the influence of the change in food choices on the dietary glycemic index of persons. The glycemic index indicates the postprandial glucose response of foods containing carbohydrates. The study observed an immediate decline in dietary GI among participants upon consumption of non fat food items and more servings of fruits and vegetables. Adoption of foods with low glycemic index is beneficial in the management of Type II Diabetes.
Nutrition education can facilitate adoption of foods with low glycemic index. However, maintaining a healthy change in diet requires further interventions. This supports my claim that Type II Diabetes is not entirely a lifestyle disease. An integrated approach that takes into account socio economic factors, food choices, and genetic influence is necessary to curb the burden that the disease places on the population and public health resources.

O’Rahilly, S, Barroso, I., and Wareham, N. (2005) “Genetic factors in Type II Diabetes: The end of the beginning?” Science, 305(2005): 370-373

In this 2005 journal article, Stephen O’Rahilly, Ines Barroso, and Nicholas Wareham present an exploration into the scientific examination of the genetic variants that predispose people to Type II Diabetes. O’Rahilly is a lecturer at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of the University of Cambridge and Addenbrooke’s Hospital Cambridge, United Kingdom while Barroso and Wareham are renowned researchers at various institutes and research councils in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Although there is no comprehensive information to conclude the genetic causation of the public health burden, a few gene variants which influence susceptibility to Type II Diabetes have been identified. Knowledge of the techniques required to detect such gene variants has been advanced.

The article concludes that knowledge of gene variants makes genetic information relevant to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Type II Diabetes.
Gene variation is an essential consideration for the management of the disease. Therefore, this information is helpful in supporting my argument that the diagnosis and treatment of Type II Diabetes depends on consideration of factor alongside observation of food choices.

2014 Physiology.
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