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Action Research Paper on Business Analyst



Abstract
The article is documentation on a real-time research study project based on database design and development, giving an introduction overview of database features and characteristics. The paper contains an outline of the background of a company that implements real-time large scale database development considering professional and expertise development of the database. It explains research methodology applied in developing and implementing entire research study project. A literature review of developed systems is outlined in the paper explaining technologies and trends applied in designing and developing the database systems. The document contains a proposal for the project defining various strategies and steps used to implement study research project. Iteration stages implemented in developing study research project are discussed in details outlining various cycles applied in ensuring methodology applied is implemented. Planning, action, observation and reflection cycles are explained in iterations. Project development stages are outlined showing the application of step by modular step development of study research project.


Table of Contents
Abstract 2
Introduction 7
Company Introduction 8
Methodology 9
The Action Research Methodology 9
Justification of Action Research Methodology 10
Literature Review on Data Base Management System development 11
Proposal 13
Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning 15
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis 15
Orientation 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing 15
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation 15
Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning 16
The Plan 16
The Action 17
The Observation 18
The Reflection 19
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis 20
Plan 20
Action 21
Observation 22
Reflection 23
Iteration 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing 24
Plan 24
Action 25
Observation 26
Figure 1: Object Oriented principles Retrieved from http://agilefaqs.com/images/training/OO.png 27
Table 1: Show one to one relationship according to Anonymous, (2010) 28
Reflection 29
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation 30
Plan 30
Action 31
Observation 32
Reflection 33
Learning summary 35
References 36


List of Tables
Table 1: Show one to one relationship 12
Table 2: Show many to many relationship 13

List of Figures
Figure 1: Object Oriented principles 11


Introduction
The desire for the business to advance and embrace the current technology has contributed to many business enterprise desiring to automate their business functionalities and the operations. The main technological approach embraced by the organizations includes the implementation of the datacenter and database management systems. The data center and the database management systems enhance handling of the data and information of the entire business. The business organizations require the Structured Query Language (SQL) programming language used to design data centers with database management systems. SQL queries facilitate the retrieving, modification, and managing of the database management systems. The purpose of the research study is providing the business enterprises with SQL database that provides the set of commands used for altering, deleting, updating, dropping and adding data and information in the tables. The research study shall implement the SQL database to handle different business operations within the business platform. The SQL programming language shall get incorporated into the JAVA Script language as well as the PHP language to implement the dynamic website. The site shall support the major operations of the business functions including the customer relations operations, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), the Business and Technology Telnet solutions.



The development process shall include the designing of the three tiers and the two-tier database and server placation. The database shall incorporate the front head and the back end database platform. The database shall support the architectural and the structural user interface to facilitate the usability and cognitive features. The database management system will favor the business processes that include the sales and marketing, the finance modules and functions and the computing assistance social platforms. The research study shall involve the preliminary study analysis process. The preliminary study analysis shall involve the data and information collection techniques using the data collection techniques like the questionnaire, the interviews, and the demographic observations.



Company Introduction
The Modern Techno Hub Company is one the major software development firms in Germany. The Modern Techno Hub Company aims at providing efficient and effective computer based solutions like; the IT consultancy services, the website designing, and the system software development. The company got launched in the 2000. The company headquarters get located in the US Canada. The Modern Techno Hub Company specialize in offering different system designing technologies like the Javascript, the SAP, the SQL, the MYSQL, the Oracle database, the BI Tools and the Microsoft database (J.K Felix, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The company has national and international clients distributed across the globe. The Modern Techno Hub Company has high experience in implementing the current trends of the business-oriented development based on technological potential. The company has good proficiency in the development and implementation of technological advancement in the field of the VMware technology, cloud computing and the cellular CMOS chipset technology (Y. M. Purity, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The Modern Techno Hub Company has department facilitating the development of the decision support system and the artificial intelligence architectural technology.

The Modern Techno Hub Company promotes the development of data warehousing and the data mining technique. Project execution and Infrastructure get supported by E-base team of researchers who has facilitated key element technology achievements. The data warehousing and the data mining techniques help the Modern Techno Hub Company clients. The potential customers enjoy the transaction monitoring and traversing of network platforms in search of related data and information. The approach is significant to the centric industries that include the financial companies like the bank, the insurance companies, the E-commerce support, the communication telecom and the retail industries (P.L Brian, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The Modern Techno Hub Company uses advanced tools to build a comprehensive architecture for customer enterprise data warehousing.

Methodology
The Action Research Methodology
The action research methodology gets connected to the Kurt Lewin, the philosopher. Kurt Lewin invented the action research methodology in the year 1940. Following the launching of the action research model, the Lewin induced a social change using the research methodology to solve the crisis and the conflicts in the he society. The action research methodology also led to the development and the improvement of the education sector through the development and changes in the school curriculum (Reason, & Bradbury, 2001). According to the Kurt Lewin technology the model get composed of the series of steps that include the repetition of stages in spiral form. The stages involved in the model include the planning stage, the action stage, the evaluation stage and the results assessment stage. The action research methodology gained popularity and became applied in different scientific research approaches. The action research popularity led to the rise of the related action research methodologies.

Fig1: The Stages of Action Research Methodology
Justification of Action Research Methodology
The action research methodology is the approach implementing the social, scientific, educational and the industrial changes. The social application of the action research brings the transformation of the society leading solution that promotes peace, love and harmony among the members of the society. The scientific approach to implementing the action research methodology involves the development of the scientific ideas by researching the theories and phenomenon behind the implementation of the certain thesis (Greenwood, & Levin, 2007). The research methodology supports the educational sector through the provision of the learner’s ability to work effectively and efficiently in educational research, the internship research, and the projects research. The action research also supports the industrial revolution through the introduction of the new technology and the innovation that induce changes in the industrial sector.



The action research methodology promotes the process of achieving the ability to understand the development of the software and the hardware equipment (McNiff, & Whitehead, 2001). The research promotes the use of the collaboration research where the researcher enquiries for information from the experts and the professionals. The exposure enables the researching team to gather knowledge, skills, and experience required in the field of the software engineering, upgrading of the system and the project development approach. The action research enables the students to develop their projects in the step by step approach in series of iterations. The iteration process enables induction of new ideas into the project during the development the implementation process. The action research approach gives the opportunity of developing the evolving technologies and projects through the provision of the detailed research process (Collaborative Action Research Network 1993).



Literature Review on Data Base Management System development
The database refers to the organized collection of related data and information. The data and information stored in the database should be relevant. Database Management System (DBMS) is designed and developed with a purpose of maintaining the structure of data and information. The main objective of having a Database Management System within an organization is ensuring that the data and information stored can get easily retrieved, easily entered and easily manipulated (van, 2003). Database Management System is a computer-based advanced software. Database Management System applies different types of database models to design desired database systems. Database Management System development architectures that exist include hierarchical or structural database management, network Database Management System and Relational Database Management System. The first type of database was hierarchical Database Management System developed by IBM between 1960 and 1970 (Subrahmanyam, 1999). The Hierarchical Database Management System is based on the application of the binary tree. The structure of the database was like a tree. The relationship between data was limited between the parent data and the children data. The benefits of the Hierarchical Database Management System were that the data was less redundant; the data had strong security, highly independent and had high integrity (Lundquist, et al…, 1999).

The network Database Management System emerged between 1970 and 1980 by Charles Bachmann. Network Database Management System applied the Integrated Data Store (IDS) (Djeraba, et al…, 1997). A group called CODASYL invented the Integrated database. The group then advanced their software by developing network Database Management System in COBOL architecture. Network database management system was developed to meet the user needs especially for the business use. Network database management system was developed using CODASYL APPROACH (Malhotra, et al…, 1997). Network database management system promoted a high level of data relationships. The data and information recorded could have multiple parents compared to the hierarchical database management system. The network database management system is made up of a set of relationship whereby each set represents one too many relationships among the different owner and the member. The problem with Network database management system was the system was complex, similarly, it was difficult to design and maintain the database. Network database management system lacked the database independent characteristics.

The relational database management system emerged between 1980 to 1990s. Relational database management system was invented was invented by Edgar Codd (Saad, & Ibrahim, 2011). He improved the CODASYL APPROACH technology by creating relational database management system. The relational database management system promoted the data and information by allowing the entry of large data banks. The relational database management system had the easier approach of retrieving and manipulating stored data. Relational database management system supports the entering big data and dealing with big data handling. Relational database management system applied the technique of the tables with columns and rows to manage data and information (Liang, at al…, 1998). The tables were then tables were linked to each other using the approaches like the one to one relationship, the one to many relationships, and the many to many relationships. Relational database management system led to the development of the R and Ingres relational database management system at the University of California. In 1885 relational database management system embraced the object oriented programming approach (Saad, & Ibrahim, 2011). The object oriented database management system did not gain popularity due to the high cost of transferring from the old database old database to new database. The object-oriented database was combined with relational database management system. The approach simplified the development process as well as better performance of the newly developed object-oriented relational database management system. Object oriented relational database management system supported text data, multimedia streaming, the internet and the web applications (Nakashima, et al…, 1992).

Proposal
The research shall deal with the development of the object-oriented relational database management system that integrates business operations. The object-oriented relational database management system will be developed using the SQL database programming language. The SQL technology will be combined with the HTML, PHP and JavaScript technology to implement a dynamic programming language. The purpose shall be to develop database management systems that provide companies with fault tolerance and redundancy free databases. The project shall use the action research approach to develop a user-friendly interface, the back end side and the client side of the database.

Figure 1 Iteration cycle

Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning
The session shall incorporate the introduction meeting in Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting shall include discussing with the experts and the professionals in database designing and development. The session shall formulate the entire object-oriented relational database development process. The project team of the Modern Techno Hub Company shall allocate resources to the project team. The team shall set the milestones and the projects goals, objectives and the mission about the company plans
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis
The session shall involve the training on the various platforms for developing high standard object-oriented relational database management system. The session shall incorporate data collection to determine the user requirements and the systems requirement. The session shall formulate the deliverable documents according to the development process. The iteration shall review the integration of different developments to meet the industrial standards.



Orientation 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing
The session shall involve drawing of the database architecture and designs. The architecture drawn shall include the designing of the user interface. The iteration shall involve the drawing of the 3 tier front end and the 3 tier back end architectures. The iteration shall also require the designing of the object-oriented relational database management system prototype and model to indicate the operation of the database.



Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation
The last iteration shall involve the process of transferring the Modern Techno Hub Company from the existing database to the new object-oriented relational database management system. The transferring process shall take place in series of steps until all departments have the object-oriented relational database management system installed. The Users shall acquire the training and awareness creations to facilitate understanding on how to operate the database. The session shall incorporate teaching on various schemes of writing queries, generating reports and using the dashboard of the object-oriented relational database management system.

Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning
The session shall incorporate the introduction meeting in Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting shall include discussing with the experts and the professionals in database designing and development. The session shall formulate the entire object-oriented relational database development process. The project team of the Modern Techno Hub Company shall allocate resources to the project team. The team shall set the milestones and the projects goals, objectives and the mission about the company plans



The Plan
The session for the planning and orientation was planned to take two weeks. During the first week was a meeting in the Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting involved having the main agenda for the meeting was to discuss the design and the implementation of the object-oriented relational database. The subtasks of the session involved the designing of the user interface. The second subtask shall involve the designing of the three tier front end interface for the client operation interface. The third task was the designing of the two-tier backend side of the object-oriented relational database. The session required the researcher to participate in learning different interfacing techniques as well as new ideas in designing. The expectations of the session were to implement a complete model of a database design with the assistance of David, the expert in object-oriented relational database designing and implementation. The second week involved the Project team developers implementing the plan project stage. The session shall the objectives of the project. The session shall also define the goals of the object-oriented relational database (N. B. Rehab, personal communication, January 20, 2016). The session shall also define the mission of the proposed project. The first task in the session shall involve the project managers allocating the resources to the project. The second task shall include defining of the scope of the project. The third task in the session shall involve the implementation of the project milestones for the effective testing of the progress of the entire project. The development team shall take part in analyzing the project feasibility study to clarify if the proposed project is viable for the Modern Techno Hub Company to make an investment in it. The expectations of the session include researcher calculating the Return on Investment (ROI) as well as the Modern Techno Hub Company checking with the defined principles stated (J. P. Rachael, personal communication, January 24, 2016). The researcher shall also calculate the Net of Project Value (NPV). The session shall take one week.



The Action
I participated in the meeting involving the main agenda about the design and the implementation of the object-oriented relational database. I took part in the session involving the designing of the user interface. Mr. David, the expert in the object-oriented relational database designing and implementation, assisted me in the designing of the three tier front end interface for the client operation interface. I implemented three tier front end interface design of the object-oriented relational database using the ASP Dot Net framework. I participated in the development of the designing of the two-tier backend side of the object-oriented relational database. I designed the interface using the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS), the HTML and the Java. Mr. David demonstrated the linking of the front end and the backend of the object-oriented relational database model. I completely implemented the expectations of the session of implementing a complete model of a database design with the assistance of David, the expert in object-oriented relational database designing and implementation.

I participated in the second week involving the project team of developers implementing the plan project stage. Modern Techno Hub Company shareholders selected a team of the object-oriented relational database developers made of the programmers, database experts, and the professionals. I participated in the session where the team of developers defined objectives of the project. The team defined the functional and the nonfunctional objectives to guide the project developers. We discussed the goals of the object-oriented relational database. The director and the stakeholders of Modern Techno Hub Company defined the mission of the proposed project. We allocated resources to the project by dividing the entire project into modules each module was allocated to individual team to develop different parts of the project. I took part in defining of the scope of the project, but the decision on which extent to cover was not clearly defined. I took part in the session involving the implementation of the project milestones for the effective testing of the progress of the entire project. We conducted the project feasibility study to clarify if the proposed project is viable for the Modern Techno Hub Company to make an investment in it. The results proved the object-oriented relational database project is economically feasible, technically feasible, and operational feasible (B. T. Tom, personal communication, January 29, 2016). I calculated the Return on Investment (ROI) as well as the Modern Techno Hub Company checking with the defined principles stated. I also calculated the Net of Project Value (NPV).

The Observation
I observed that the entire process of the orientation and planning involved the expert approach of the planning for a project. The experts first implemented a design model to ensure that the project team developers and programmers have a clear picture of the entire project within their mind. The designing of the prototype equipped me with knowledge, experience, and the skills in designing the various types of the interface. I observed that different development techniques are applied in developing the various interfaces. The diversity of the programming environments provides the developer with more elastic and flexible freedom of selecting the language of his expertise (K. M. David, personal communication, February 05, 2016). I realized that the selection of various techniques and technologies in the designing and the implementation of the design interfaces equipped me with knowledge, skills, and experience in using different interfaces in the development process. I observed that the database development using the object-oriented approach involved the proper allocation of resources to facilitate effective running of the project. I observed that the human resources for were allocated according to modular implementation to facilitate effective and efficient implementation of the functions and the activities of the modules. I observed that the process involving the object-oriented relational database development the objectives defined included the functional and the nonfunctional objectives. The objectives were to guide the developers in focusing on the main parts of the major focus of the project development. I observed that the Modern Techno Hub Company relies on different measures and determinants of the evaluation of the project to determine the project viability.

The Reflection
During the orientation and planning approach the experts, professionals together with the intervention of Mr. David, imparted me with the knowledge, skills and the experience required in the development of object-oriented relational databases. The session dealing with the development of the object-oriented relational database model has led to the observation of the steps and the procedures that make the background foundation of the object-oriented relational database development process. The developing team has implemented the modular based approach to designing and developing the proposed database. The approach has equipped me with the understanding about the best procedures for developing the object-oriented relational database systems. The development of the object-oriented relational database model was a direction towards achieving the best way of allocating the resources to the existing proposed project (H. C. Faith, personal communication, February 07, 2016). The approach formed the best approach and the practice for the developers to emulate. The session of the orientation and planning failed to define the scope of the object-oriented relational database design due to the diversified views concerning the future implementation focus. The object-oriented relational database approach can implement different forms of applications due high flexibility and mobility of development technologies applied. The embedding of different modules and programs within the developed and proposed projects made the definition of the scope difficult (K. V. Mark, personal communication, February 10, 2016). The future iterations shall focus on ensuring the effectively allocated resources shall be implemented in the most appropriate methodology.
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis

Plan
The iteration had the primary focus on the defining and determined the requirements of the Object oriented relational database management system. The actions were outlined in several phases. The initial stage of the iteration was doing through training about the different platforms of developing a database management system. The training session took a period of three consecutive days. The training sessions were conducted in the Information Technology Department board room. The training phase also involved the studying of the object oriented relational databases whereby we outlined the components of the database model alongside the reasons as to why organizations are moving towards adopting the system.
The second tire of the iteration followed the begging of defining and determining the end user requirements and the system requirements. I began by assembling the data collecting materials. This process included the preparation of the questionnaire questions and presenting requests of meeting the stakeholders of the organization and selected other executives of the business. The second subsection of the second tier involved the undertaking of data collection. The process of data collection took the duration of four days consecutively. I concentrated very much on making sure that all the stakeholders are involved in the course of the requirements definition.

The following step was the recording of the collected data which took a period of one day. This process was the preparation for undertaking the data analysis and it defined the data cleaning process. The third subsection was the analysis of the data collected data from which I identified the end user related. I finalized the tier by validating the defined requirements. I also defined the system requirements by consulting the database experts who outlined the technical requirements of the relational database management system.

Action
By the time, I began my training I had understood the location of the company, and I stood to move the institution easily without hardships. I attended the training prepared by the project manager with the aim of understanding the different platforms of developing database applications and the overall understanding of the object-oriented relational database management system components. I organized myself with a pre-training exercise that got me through undertaking several activities. I visited the company archive where I studied the previous platforms applied by the company in developing the disposed database management systems. This was just a preparation to ensure that the content is well captured. I got into the training. The training was conducted by the senior database managers and administrators who defined and described the different platforms of developing databases. The training was made effective with the undertaking of some practical relating to how to use some software integrated development environments (IDEs).

After the training, I immediately prepared the data collecting materials whereby I designed the questionnaire questions which were administered to the end users of the organization. I also designed the meeting invitations to the stakeholders. I began immediately to collect the data from eth end users as I administered the questionnaire where I let the end users to stay with it for one day upon which I collected. I conducted one to one meeting with the stakeholders to make sure they adequately provide the required information. I recorded the data collected and analyzed the data from which I determine the requirements. I validated the outlined requirements to make sure they get the meeting of the company objectives as well as their relevance to the business. I lastly described the technical requirements of the system.

Observation
System analysis is an essential phase of developing any application as it aids the system developers in this case the database developers to outline the end user requirements and the system technical requirements. In this iteration, I began with the training about the database development platform. The training was to provide the understanding of the methodology that can get applied in the designing and develop the database. I observed that the company had an identified platform of using the SQL statements in developing the database. Despite the Oracle defined architecture of designing and developing the database, the trainers instead that the SQL was much applicable because of its flexibility. Subsequently, we had a focus on some critical components of developing a database, and the major focus was normalization and determination of the database components. Normalization is a very critical activity that if wrongly done will get a database with the highest level of redundancy (Sponaugle, 2014).

The data collection process was an essential process, and I made it very successful by collected as much information as I could especially the stakeholders. I had designed the questionnaire that captured the most critical information that is supposed to be considered while designing the database. The requirements were categorized into two, the end user requirements that defined what the database will get to do. The technical system requirements defined the applications that ought to facilitate the development of the application.
The analysis process was defined of quality since I applied the Tableau software in the data visualization. The application fastened the process and also reduced the human related errors during the undertaking of the data analysis. Another observation was that validation was required as this enabled the definition of the requirements that suits the development of the system that supports the meeting of the company objectives.

Reflection
The iteration activities were conducted professionally. I can say that the training session made me enthusiastic about undertaking other activities as I eagerly waited to see how a database can get developed from scratch. The training session enabled me to have a good understanding that elimination of redundancy is only done during the normalization process. Therefore, I acquired the skills and knowledge on how critically a person can make normalization easy. The training was attended with the personnel that I did imagine they can attend such a session. This opened my understanding of how beneficial a database is to an organization and how determinant it’s to the meeting of the business objectives. The attendance got me with the wishes that the CEO could have also attended.
The definition of the object-oriented relational database management system requirements is the primary objective of undertaking system analysis. The data collection process was made successful with the chronological undertaking activities alongside the use of applicable and standardized software to facilitate the process. I had to use technology to make sure the most required ends user requirements are captured. I did consult the database administrators deliberately with the aim of defining the technical requirements.
According to the phases of software development lifecycle, system analysis documentation is well applied to the undertaking the activity of designing, developing, testing and implementing the application. The output was the beginning of pushing me to provide the actual database management system. Therefore, I moved ahead with the designing, developing, testing and implementing the database management system.

Iteration 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing
Plan
The third iteration is defined to have the development of the technical architecture of the object-oriented relational database management system alongside the actual development of the system and to test the system for the verification of meeting the defined requirements. I began the implementation of the iteration with the defining the roles that I will get involved as part of the database development team. This was a short step to getting the processes done according to the confidence and readily acquired skills. The initial activity was the designing of the database architecture and designs. The applications displayed how the database will get to deliver its services to the organization. The implementation of the designs depended on the defined requirements and the third final normalization. Therefore, it means that the architecture and design accomplishment will get accomplished with the undertaking of the data normalization. The role assigning will take half a day while the normalization process will take a period of 2 days.
The second tier of the process will be the developing of the database into an actual appearance by the use of the defined and appropriate integrated development environment (IDE). The process will involve the coding of the database using the SQL programming language.
The third part of the iteration will be the testing of the application. The testing process will be undertaken in several steps of first defining inputs and the outputs of the database. The definition of the materials outlines the different formats that company save its information and other related formats that can cause faults to the database. This aims at providing some capabilities that can get implemented to ensure that the database meets the defined requirements and that the security is well enhanced. The testing process will take two days while the coding of the database will take five days (Microsoft, n.d).

Action
The iteration defined the application of the skills of normalizing the objects that are supposed to be stored within the database. It also defines the designing of the database and the testing of the object-oriented relational database management system. I began with having the good understanding of the role that I was to undertake. The role definition is very important as it enables the creation and undertaking the required tasks as assigned. This was just a preparation for understanding the follow-up activities.
The designing of the database began with the determination of the database purpose. In the case, I had to review the requirements outlined in the early phase so that I get to have a good understanding of the facts that should get prioritized to get saved in the database. This marked my initial step of designing the database. Once I had determined the information, I developed the tables that will store the information. The creation of the tables meant the separation of the information int specific separate subject to answer that the purpose is focused. I organized the requirements into the tables such that the related information is grouped and defined within a single table for example employees table. A table contains attributes, and I had to outline the fields of the table (Microsoft, n.d).
I followed with determining the table fields. In this case, I identified the information that I wanted to store in the respective tables. The field will describe the kind of information stored in the table, for example, the employee table may have the fields of First_name, Last_name, Employee_No and Hire_date. Each table contained its respective fields in this case there are specifications and links between the tables.

I moved to the subsequent step of defining and introducing relationships amongst the tables. The process outlined the determination of the data field of one table is related to the field data of another table. This defined the normalization of the data. I finalized the design by analyzing the Object oriented relational management system design. This involves the checking of the output about the desired results. The analysis described the testing of the database as it displayed the meeting of the business objectives as according to the defined requirements for the system analysis.
Observation
The designing of the object-oriented relational database management system applied the object oriented principles which are greatly beneficial to any system. The appreciated principles of the object-oriented applications include polymorphism, abstraction, encapsulation and inheritance (Wallen, 2005). The principles take to get a company with a flexible application that suits the requirements of the business. The database management system was developed, and it focused on the aspects which got the designing of the application to the required standards and expected the level of technology.

Figure 1: Object Oriented principles Retrieved from http://agilefaqs.com/images/training/OO.png
Database designing can be regarded as art because of the many decisions the database developer gets to make to make sure that the application will suit a desirable application. It means that there is no way two databases will look alike because they ought to describe specific applications. The designing of a relational database is outlined in a process of several steps. The first step is the defining the actual purpose of the database being designed. In this case, the requirements analysis is the activity to be undertaken. This will describe the objectives and expectations of the database. The second step of the design process is the gathering of eth relevant company information followed by the definition of the database tables with the specification of eth primary key. The phase explains the definition of the location where the data will get stored (tables). A relational model is uniquely identified with the ensuring that the table does not contain a duplicate of rows (fields) as data stored cannot be duplicated and thus the choosing of a column that will uniquely identify the table rows (primary key) (Anonymous, 2010).
The tables are linked to having the introduction of the relationship so that information can be located at any location in the database. The relationship is defined either as one to many relationships, many of many relationships or one to one relationship.


Table 1: Show one to one relationship according to Anonymous, (2010)
Normalization is applied to ensure that the database is structurally correct and according to the defined objectives. Normalization is undertaken into four phases of First Normal Form (1NF), Second Normal Form (2NF), Third Normal Form (3NF) and the Higher Normal Form. The analysis of the design acts as the testing of the database in confirmation of meeting the requirements defined and objectives.

Table 2: Show many to many relationship according to Anonymous, (2010)
Reflection
The designing of the database in a proper way will guarantee the development team of elimination of redundancy. Redundancy is a challenge that will render the database insufficient, inefficient and ineffective. Redundancy elimination will get to have the storage of a single piece of data in one place but not more than one location within the same database. Also well designing of the database does guarantee data integrity and accuracy.
In my opinion, the process of designing the database was full of decision making, and this was challenging. The making of wrong decision resulted in the designing of a wrong application which forced me to have a retreat in re-accomplishing the application once more. The process was undertaken in a repetitive manner. I opt to have been a regular visitor the company database administrators who could have provided me the right direction on how to undertake activities. Another challenge felt was the difficult in outlining some of the critical facts that should get included in the design of the database application. The process was challenging. However, the good about the designing of the database was that the application was in the position of getting done repetitively without affecting the initial steps done correctly.



The approved certified object-oriented relational database management system was to get deployed for usage. The proper use of the system requires that the end users get to have a good understanding of the procedures followed in using the system. Therefore, it outlines the necessity of having the database installed which will get the end users through training. The deployment of the application does follow after then.
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation
Plan
The iteration operations outline the deployment of the designed object-oriented relational database management system in replacement of the existing database. The process began with the determination of the appropriate operation of converting the system. I began with defining the available system conversion operations that are the plunged operation, phased operation, parallel operation and the pilot operation. After the analysis, I was able to outline the most appropriate operation that will get me deploy the object-oriented relational database management system designed. The deployment of the system should not affect in any way the operations of the system, therefore, It was essential to adopt a mechanism that is relatively friendly.
The iteration of installation training and the overall implementation was critical and the subsequent activity defining the conversion operation was the definition and installation of the appropriate software, communication facilities that will facilitate the functioning of the designed object-oriented relational database management system. This action involved the mechanism of making sure that the physical security is well planned and arranged for the database location. This will have the restriction of easy access to the database servers.
The third tier of the iteration will be the actual installation of the database within the company. The installation will be the overall configuration of the database so that it can get for use by the employees and the entire fraternity of company. Before the operational phase of the database management system begins there was training to the employees and respective users of the object-oriented relational database management system. Therefore, the fourth division of the iteration was the training. The training was immediately followed by the operation of the system. In support to ensure sufficiency, technical support was provided by taking to track and monitor the operations of the database management system.



Action
Once the designing of the object-oriented relational database management system I had to install the application. I defined the application converting operations suitable for the deployment of the system. I outlined the procedures involved in each software conversion model and related to its impact when applied to the deployment of the database. Another consideration undertaken was the issue to do with the cost of installation and the security of the existing information on the company. However, all operations could have been applied because the management did not consider the cost but the efficiency of the operation. I followed with the involvement of the database administrators n the definition of the telecommunication devices and other relative applications required for the installation of the object-oriented relational database management system.

After I had identified the applications and devices, I got them installed and prepared myself for installing the database management system. I identified the prioritized data that was considered confidential to the company so that I provide the required confidentiality from the start of configuration up the usage of the system. However, at the early level, I defined and established the physical security mechanism to the database servers as well. The system was set into the operational phase. At that time, I conducted training to the end users of the system. The training was undertaken in four typical steps. I began by the preparation of the training. The preparation involved the summarizing of the procedures of using the application and the documentation of the system, defining the training objectives and securing the training room as well. I moved to a presentation the documentation summary and describing the procedures of how to use the object-oriented relational database management system. The actions defined the presentation step.
I moved ahead to the performance step where I measured the level of understanding of the trainees. This involved the group assignment discussions and presenting before the trainers. I finalized with the follow through which defined mastering of the concepts. I then moved to allowing the database to operate within the system. The followed activity was the monitoring the operation capability of the system to so that errors can get rectified and the overall provision of technical support.
Observation
Installation of the database is not such critical. It all bases on the principles and procedures of configuring the system within the company. I had to get the iteration actions undertaken in a sequential manner by making sure that appropriate steps are followed well. During the definition of the conversion system operation, I observed that the plunged operation was a faster mode of change over. It enables one to abandon the old system directly and start using the new system. I noted that the model was insecure in the case of the failure of the new system. It means that all information will get lost and thus getting the company to lose important information. Otherwise, if things go well, it was the appropriate model. The parallel operation was the most expensive as it was to get me to running the current database system and the new object-oriented relational database system. This guaranteed security, but it is much involving. The pilot operation, on the other hand, was to take time and was also relatively expensive. The phased operation was the most regarded as the best operational change over the model. It enables the changing to a new system in phases by installing module by module. I, therefore, settled to use the phased operation.
The installation process was undertaken well as I had defined the configuration procedures well. It got me the best as the implementation model applied was friendly for the entire process. Indeed, the idea of conducting training and making it as a separate activity was very important. The process enabled the end users of the system to acquire the relative knowledge required for using the system. The process was undertaken in steps, and this got the good impacting of understanding the end users. In any case, training is regarded as another important, crucial aspect when it comes to introducing new system within a company. This reduced the possible mistakes that the users could make.

Reflection
Software engineering field was at one time under a crisis when the development of the projects did not meet the defined requirements. As a result, they defined a model for facilitating the designing and development of the application. As a follow of the international standards for developing applications, I had to get the iteration activities undertaken in that procedural manner. The activities were successfully done. I was able to define the appropriate software change over a model that is the phased operation which cost less and was efficient and effective. The installation process was also made successful as I had defined well procedures of getting the new object-oriented relational database management system configured. The training was conducted well, and it got the end users with the power to use the application well, and this reduced the human related errors as far as software application is concerned.
In my opinion, the process was successful only a few challenges of making a decision. I appreciate the fact of the company professional who provided me the guidance on how to undertake the entire process of installing and implementing the new database management system. However, I wished to have the attendance of the senior management executives in the training also to appreciate efforts done and provide some recommendation, but they did not turn up. I had to define mechanisms of getting to them to provide some recommendation regarding the activities I had undertaken.

Learning summary
Projects are the determinants of organization growth. An organization can opt to expand its operations and often improve the services and products by coming up with as many productive projects as it can to its capacity. The power of getting to develop an application requires the good understanding of the operations, procedures, and principles that govern an organization. It is necessary to have the understanding of the activities that gets the company to operate before embarking on developing the application.
The success of a project depends on the definition of the problem and the objectives of the project. It, therefore, means that system analysis process provides the good understanding of what is expected to be undertaken by the project team. At the same time, it facilitates the definition of the requirements that provide a guideline on how activities are supposed to be undertaken. Designing is well achieved by having a prototype that will define the functionality of the system. Upon producing the actual final product, the prototype will get the developer to have the understanding of the modules to get included in the process.
The designing of the database is also challenging when it comes to management and the use of the application. It requires that the development team come consults for guidance from the senior designers. Training is a necessity in any project development. It enables the eradication of the ignorance that costs organization at later stages. At the same time, training is a good contributor to quality of operations and quality of products. The training does provide awareness to some of the underlying technical challenges that can be handled by any end user of the application.


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