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How to write a nursing paper
How to write a nursing paper
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Non-Plagiarized College Nursing Papers
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Comparing two organized crime groups: the Russian Mafia and the Chinese Triad
Organized Crime Groups
Comparing two organized crime groups: the Russian Mafia and the Chinese Triad
Organized crime groups refer to gangs, societies, and conglomerations which operate illegally. While some organized crime groups are limited to one country, others have extensive international networks. Security agencies across the globe have been involved in efforts aimed at rooting out the organized crime groups. Despite such efforts, thousands of organized crime groups continue to thrive in numerous jurisdictions. Some of the most dangerous organized crime groups have a long history that is centuries old. Additionally, some organized crime groups are less than a century old but have developed elaborate networks across different jurisdictions. Some organized crime groups have also cooperated with terrorist groups in order to advance their activities and networks. These attributes exemplify the complex framework that characterizes most organized crime groups.
The Russian Mafia and the Chinese Triad are two outstanding organized crime groups. The former has over three hundred thousand members while the latter has a complex organizational system that enhances its operations. (Suzuki, 2009) The two organized crime groups are characterized by various similarities. For instance, both are greatly involved in drug trafficking and sex trade. These are illegal operations which are executed by the groups through their efficient global networks. Despite such similarities, the Russian Mafia and the Chinese Triad have numerous aspects that distinguish them. For instance, the Chinese Triad has extensive operations in Asia while the Russian Mafia is largely based in Europe and United States (Jamieson, 2001).
Various theories apply strongly to the operation of these organized crime groups. The differential association and strain theory are two notable theories that connect with the two groups (Hoffman, 2003). These perspectives form the basis of analysis in this research. The analysis narrows down on comparing and contrasting between the two organized crime groups.
The Russian Mafia
The foundation of the Russian Mafia can be traced to the late 18th Century in the former Soviet Union. During this period, the gang did not comprise of many members and its activities were limited geographically. However, the Russian Mafia grew in terms of membership and it was during the early 20th Century that the group’s activities became widespread across the Soviet Union (Serio, 2003). In essence, the rapid growth of the Russian Mafia in the early 20th Century is greatly attributed to the extensive instability of the government in the Soviet Union. Bankrolled by unscrupulous businessmen and corrupt politicians, the Russian Mafia gradually cast its net across other nations in Eastern Europe.
The fall of Joseph Stalin’s regime also served as an advantage for the Russian Mafia to expand its networks. Most of the members of this organized crime group are corrupt personalities, drug barons, and former prisoners. This is an aspect that has helped integrate a culture of ruthlessness and tyranny within the Russian Mafia (Shvarts, 2003). From 1950 onwards, the Russian Mafia began to spread to North America. Some of the group’s members masqueraded as businessmen in order to gain entry into the United States. The network of this organized crime group was so massive that the United States security agencies considered it as a potent threat to national security.
Before the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Mafia influenced over 60% of the economy. Such extensive influence can be attributed to numerous factors. Firstly, this organized crime group has an elaborate organizational system that facilitates for efficiency in terms of commands. Secondly, the Russian Mafia has a high membership which currently tops the 300,000 mark. With so many members, it is considerably easy for the organized crime group to advance its illegal operations.
The strong financial backing from drug barons and corrupt politicians is another aspect that has substantially streamlined the operations of this organized crime group (Weenink, 2007). Additionally, the weak governments across Eastern Europe enhanced the capacity of this organized crime group to establish an elaborate network. There are more than 5,000 subgroups that fall under the umbrella of the Russian Mafia. Such a complex organizational structure has complicated the efforts of law enforcement agencies to counter the Russian Mafia. Money laundering is among the most notable criminal activities by this organized crime group. The Russian Mafia has established numerous cartels for money laundering in the black market. The group’s framework for money laundering also encompasses illegal revenue collection from businesses and other income generating organizations.
While authorizes in Russian are aware of such money laundering operations, sniffing out the group is a massive challenge. The Russian Mafia combines its networks for money laundering with intricate systems of illegal extortions. When the targeted individuals fail to cooperate, members of this group murder the victims ruthlessly. Such heinous operations are characteristic of many organized crime groups across the globe (Jamieson, 2001). Drug trafficking is also a notable activity that characterizes the criminal activities of the Russian Mafia.
The group has strategic connections with numerous drug cartels. Such connections ensure that the members of this organized crime group can easily access illegal substances such as cocaine. The Russian Mafia has been involved in lucrative drug syndicates on countless occasions. Prostitution serves as another notable criminal activity of this organized crime group. The group recruits young girls from poor backgrounds for prostitution mostly in Eastern Europe. Police in London have recently exposed a massive prostitution racket attributed to the Russian Mafia. In this racket, more than ten women from countries in Eastern Europe had been forcibly recruited into the prostitution cartel as an income generating operation for the mafia. This exemplifies the group’s extensive networks even in the west.
Some of the individuals on FBI’s most wanted list are members of the Russian Mafia. This is because of their involvement in crimes in United States and also the advancement of narcotics trade (Shvarts, 2003). Human trafficking is another outstanding activity under the operational framework of the Russian Mafia. Additionally, this organized crime group has also been involved in various rackets of cybercrime. These perspectives underline the extensive operations under the umbrella of the Russian Mafia. The Italian mafia serves as an outstanding rival of this organized crime group. This is because the Italian mafia has excellent networks in Western Europe and other regions internationally. A notable strength of the Russian mafia is the massive financial resources. Such resources have greatly streamlined the operations of the organized crime group within its global networks.
Another advantage possessed by this group pertains to the high membership. With over three hundred thousand members, this organized crime group has excellent manpower to advance its criminal activities. This attribute has significantly strengthened the Russian mafia over the years. Despite such advantages, the Russian mafia is faced by various setbacks (Jamieson, 2001). For instance, Interpol has established stringent measures aimed at averting the threat of organized crime groups. Due to such measures, some influential figures in the Russian mafia have been arrested.
The Chinese Triad is a powerful organized crime group that mainly operates in China. However, the Chinese Triad also has expansive networks across the Southeast region and the Fareast. While this organized crime group has a long history, its foundation is mainly attributed to the peasants and Chinese monks in the early 18th Century. In an attempt to alleviate social injustices from authorities, monks established groups for self-protection and social harmony (Andrew, 2008). Such groups were strongly supported by the poor including peasants who were victims of injustice from the authorities. With time, the group became immensely influential from a political perspective.
The toppling of the last Chinese dynasty in the early 20th Century is widely attributed to the Chinese Triad. By this time, the group had established excellent connections with drug smugglers from other countries. This provided the group with an adequate financial springboard to advance its illegal operations within the Southeast Asian region. The Communist Party’s rise to power significantly hampered the operations of this organized crime group in China. The new regime established stringent security measures aimed at averting all forms on criminal operations in the country. Due to such adversity, the Chinese Triad shifted its main operating headquarters to Hong Kong (Xue, 2007). In Hong Kong, the group developed extensive networks while also continuing with its recruitment policy.
In Hong Kong, this group subdivided the jurisdiction into nine units. These subdivisions were largely based on ethnic affiliations and each unit had a leader. Despite such an elaborate organizational network, the group’s activities were stifled in 1955 after the introduction of stringent security measures by local authorities. However, the group’s expansive network has enhanced its criminal operations even in the 21st Century. While joining the Triad, new members must pledge a commitment to thirty sixth oaths. The Chinese Triad considers these oaths as essential plans for prohibiting the members from revealing the group’s secrets. Additionally, the oaths help the members to remain committed to Chinese Triad for their entire lifetime. This organized crime group also performs an initiation ceremony for the new members. Such initiation ceremonies are also notable in the recruitment rituals of the Italian mafia.
The Chinese Triad expects members to conform to a strict code. Outrageous punishment is administered on any members who deviate from the rules stipulated in the code. The leader of the Chinese triad is referred to as the ‘mountain master’ and has three deputies. Each deputy is mandated with different organizational responsibilities. The organizational hierarchy of this group comprises of many role-players. The new recruits are the lowest ranked individuals in the group’s hierarchical framework. This group is involved in an array of extensive criminal activities (Yiu, 2006).
While most the group’s criminal operations are in China and the Southeast Asia region, it has global networks. These networks are scattered across different nations including the UK, USA, and Japan. Health care fraud is a notable criminal activity that falls under the umbrella of the Chinese Triad. The group establishes rackets in order to accrue money from health care schemes such as insurance billing systems. Counterfeiting serves as another criminal activity performed by this organized crime group.
The group has spearheaded numerous scams of counterfeiting currency especially in Hong King and China. The Chinese triad is also heavily connected with drug trafficking syndicates. The group generates a lot of money from such syndicates. Prostitution and contract killing are also notable criminal activities carried out by this organized crime group. The extensive operations of this organized crime group have been enhanced by various strengths. An outstanding strongpoint possessed by the Chinese Triad is the high membership (Andrew, 2008). With more than one million members, the Chinese Triad is easily among the largest organized crime groups in the globe.
The high number of members enables the Chinese Triad to plan and implement its criminal activities efficiently. Additionally, such a strong membership has significantly enhanced the income accrued by the group. Despite such advantages, the Chinese Triad is also faced by the setback of revelations by rebellious members (Suzuki, 2009). For instance, some members have quit the group for other careers such as acting. This exposes the gang’s secrets to law enforcement agencies. The Yakuza mafia from Japan is among the most notable rivals of the Chinese triad. This is because of Yakuza’s excellent networks across the Fareast.
Similarities between the Russian Mafia and the Chinese Triad
Both the Chinese Triad and the Russian Mafia are characterized by numerous similarities. While some of the similarities are directly connected to the operations of the two groups, others are based on the organizational structure. Consequently, it is fundamentally essential to put such similarities into perspective. One of the fundamental similarities between the two organized crime groups pertains to the high membership.
The Russian Mafia has over three hundred thousand members while the membership of the Chinese triad stands at more than 1.5 million individuals (Suzuki, 2009). These are high membership rates that have formed the basis of the extensive criminal operations of both groups. Apart from membership, another outstanding similarity between the two organized crime groups pertains to their organization into numerous subgroups. Both groups comprise of hundreds of subdivisions which are strategically located across different locations.
Through these subdivisions, both groups establish effective rackets for different criminal operations. Such an intricate organizational framework has been a focal point for advancing the illegal operations carried out by both groups. The third major perspective of similarities between the Russian mafia and the Chinese triad pertains to their history. Both organized crime groups were established in the 18th Century. Similarly, both the Chinese triad and the Russian mafia became extremely powerful at the first half of the 20th Century. Based on these aspects, the historical timelines of the two organized crime groups are similar.
Political influence also serves as a pertinent aspect that exemplifies the similarity between the Chinese triad and the Russian mafia. Some corrupt politicians are notable members of the Russian mafia. This aspect also applies to the Chinese triad. In both organized crime groups, politicians use the members to perform political executions and also in the advancement of illegal killings. Both organized crime groups are heavily involved in similar criminal activities. For instance, drug trafficking is a prominent criminal activity carried out by both the Russian Mafia and the Chinese triad. In essence, both groups consider drug trafficking business as an excellent activity for generating money.
Additionally, most members of the two organized crime group are addicts of illegal substances such as cocaine and cannabis. The rampant abuse of hardcore drugs is thus an aspect that exemplifies the similarities between the Chinese triad and the Russian mafia (Jamieson, 2001). From the perspective of criminal activities, another similarity between both organized crime groups is the issue of human trafficking. This criminal activity is high on the agenda of the operations of both groups.
The Russian mafia uses human trafficking as a platform for recruiting slaves and prostitutes. Similarly, the Chinese triad considers human trafficking as an essential source of cheap labor, money, and personnel to work in their prostitution rackets. Money laundering is another criminal activity which is a typical feature in both organized crime groups. Both groups have made millions of dollars from well-planned money laundering rackets. For instance, the Chinese triad has orchestrated a string of fraudulent scams in the Fareast including Japan (Andrew, 2008). Similarly, the Russian mafia has been behind numerous fraud schemes across Europe. Additionally, both groups have efficient systems for extortion of money from innocent people. The elaborate global networks manned by the two groups also reflect the similarities in their respective operational mechanisms. Through the global networks, the organized crime groups orchestrated drug trafficking syndicates and other kinds of illegal operations.
Differences between the Chinese Triad and Russian Mafia
While the Chinese Triad and the Russian Mafia have numerous similarities, various differences are also notable in both the organized crime groups. The first notable difference between the two organized crime groups involves the issue of geographical location. The Russian mafia’s operations are largely in the Eastern European region. This is because of the mafia’s roots in the former Soviet Union. This is different from the operating base of the Chinese Triad. This organized crime group largely operates in the Southeast Asian region. Based on these aspects, the geographical locations of the two organized crime groups are different.
The recruitment systems used by both groups are also distinct. For the Russian mafia, the recruitment of new members does not involve traditional rituals such as the administration of oaths. However, such rituals are integral elements of the recruitment framework used by the Chinese Triad. The Chinese triad administers thirty six oaths in a specially planned initiation ceremony for all new members (Suzuki, 2009). This organized crime group has used this recruitment system for ages. The Chinese triad perceives the ritual as massively essential with regard to the enhancement of loyalty and lifetime allegiance among the members. While the Russian mafia demands high standards of loyalty and allegiance from the members, it does not have a solid framework for spirituality.
The Russian mafia poses greater security threats than the Chinese triad. Before the Soviet Union had crumbled, federal security agencies had categorized the Russian mafia a potent threat to American security. In Eastern Europe, this organized crime group has murdered thousands of people while also kidnapping and torturing others. These aspects exemplify the extensive security threat posed by the Russian mafia. While the Chinese triad is also a dangerous society from the perspective of security, its criminal operations are considerably less brutal. Consequently, the security threat posed by the Chinese Triad is of a lesser magnitude as compared to the Russian mafia (Jamieson, 2001).
Since the late 19th Century, the Chinese triad has masterminded numerous syndicates of counterfeiting currencies. The counterfeit syndicates by this organized crime group are mostly limited to the People’s Republic of China and Hong Kong. Even in the 21st Century, the Chinese Triad ha orchestrated numerous counterfeiting syndicates. Consequently, counterfeiting of currency is high on the list of the criminal activities carried out by the Chinese triad. This criminal operation is not one of the activities by the Russian mafia. In essence, this organized crime group is largely involved with the mainstream crimes such as extortion and drug trafficking.
The issue of counterfeiting is thus a feature that puts into perspective the difference between the Russian mafia and the Chinese triad. Clans are notable aspects of the organizational design of the Chinese Triad. For instance, the Tongs are crucial clans within the organizational system of the triad (Yiu, 2005). On the contrary, the Russian mafia does not include such clans. While the two organized crime groups have similar attributes in their historical timelines, their foundations are distinct.
The foundation of the Russian mafia hinges on the weaknesses of the Soviet government. Due to such weaknesses, numerous gangs mushroomed in order to take advantage. This forms the basis of the Russian mafia. In contrast, the Chinese triad mushroomed from the rebellion of monks and peasants towards the emperor (Andrew, 2008). In view of these aspects, the two organized crime groups have different frameworks for foundation.
Chinese Triad Russian Mafia
Major distinguishing feature of members is the Chinese race Major distinguishing feature of members is the Russian nationality
The main geographical area of operation is Southeast Asia and the Fareast The main geographical area of operation is the Eastern European region
The main rivals are the Italian Mafia The main rivals are the Yakuza
Strengths include excellent organization, strict code of conduct, and high membership. Strengths include adequate financing and elaborate international networks.
The greatest weakness is the revelation of the group’s secrets by rebellious members The greatest weakness is the stringent security measures against illegal gangs in Russia and United States
Theories Applying to the Operation of the Chinese Triad and the Russian Mafia
There are numerous theoretical frameworks that help in demystifying the behavior or criminals, development of gangs, and escalation of criminal activities among others. Consequently, it is fundamentally pertinent to assess some of the most outstanding theories as directly relates to the operations of the Chinese triad and the Russian mafia (Hoffman, 2003). The strain theory is a notable concept that strongly applies to the operations of the two organized crime groups.
Among the core stipulations of the strain theory is that individuals in the society and pressurized into criminal activities by the social structure. Based on such a stipulation, the strain theory applies immensely to the Chinese triad. The roots of this triad are attributed to the high levels of social imbalance in traditional Chinese society. Due to these kinds of imbalances, the poor people opted to form gangs in order to protect themselves. This exemplifies that the social structure had extensive influence in the establishment of the Chinese triad. The differential association theory is another concept that applies to the organized crime groups in this analysis.
The differential association theory stipulates that interactions with other people are crucial towards the acquisition of criminal tactics by an individual. Deviance is a pertinent aspect that characterizes this theory (Ferrall, 2009). The rapid growth of the Russian mafia can be linked to the framework for differential association. This is because members of the organized crime group acquire criminal attitudes and techniques from interacting with others.
The theory also underlines the influential role of groups in the acquisition of criminal attitudes. This stipulation conforms to the foundation of the Chinese triad. When people interacted in groups, they developed criminal attributes. This was instrumental in the establishment and growth of the group. The strain theory is also exemplified by the Russian mafia in numerous ways. After World War II, the Soviet Union did not have adequate systems and mechanisms for averting insecurity. This created an excellent environment for illegal gangs to be established (Hoffman, 2003). Consequently, this underlines the extensive influence of social structures in the operations and criminal activities of the Russian mafia.
The analysis encompasses a comparison of the Chinese triad and the Russian mafia. These are dangerous organized crime groups with extensive networks for criminal operations. While the Chinese triad has its roots in People’s Republic of China, the Russian mafia is largely based in the former Soviet Union. Both organized crime groups have expansive international networks which they use in the execution of illegal operations. Drug trafficking, extortion, and money laundering are some of the most notable criminal activities associated with the two organized crime group. Additionally, both groups have brilliant organizational systems which spearhead their respective operations. From a theoretical perspective, different concepts are inherently connected to the operations of the two groups. The strain theory is exemplified as a concept that explains the establishment of the Chinese Triad.
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Ferrall, B. R. (2009). Criminology theory, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 91(1): 307
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Jamieson, A. (2001). Transnational Organized Crime: A European Perspective, Studies in Conflict & terrorism, 24(5): 377-387
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